Microbial Keratitis—A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Ocular Manifestations, and Management
Purpose: To review updated knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of microbial keratitis (MK).
Source of Data: International and local journals containing current literature on MK were sourced through the Internet.
Study Selection: Findings consistent with our objectives were compiled and reviewed. Data Extraction: Data were extracted using endnotes.
Results: MKis a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. The pathogenesis comprises molecular mechanisms
describing microbial activities which involve virulence and host factors responsible for ocular tissue damage and progression in keratitis. Clinical features include redness, pain, tearing, blurred vision, and inflammation, but symptoms vary depending on the causative agent. The primary treatment goal is the elimination of causative organism in addition to neutralization of virulence factors and healing of damaged host tissue. A timely review of our current understanding of MK with the recent advances in its treatment will ensure improved management outcomes.
Conclusion: Optimal outcome from management of MK will require an updated knowledge of its pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment protocols, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where its prevalence is on the increase.
Keywords: Epidemiology, management, microbial keratitis, ocular manifestations, pathogenesis