Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology

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Risk factors associated with Amblyopia among primary school pupils in Kosofe Town, Lagos State, Nigeria

Segun J. Ikuomenisan, Kareem O. Musa, Olufisayo T. Aribaba, Adeola O. Onakoya


Aim: To investigate the risk factors associated with amblyopia among primary school pupils in Kosofe town, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted, in which a multistage random sampling technique was employed for recruiting the children. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires by the parents or caregivers and from detailed ocular examinations performed by the investigators. Data analysis was performed using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 20.0.

Results: A total of 1702 children participated in the study, with over 90% of the children being aged 4–10 years. Most (78.5%) of the mothers were aged 20–39 years at childbirth, and the mean age was 30.5 ± 7.8 years. Amblyopia was detected in 24 (1.41%) children. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, children whose mothers had no formal education at childbirth had an 11-fold greater risk of having amblyopia [odds ratios (OR)=11.25, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)=1.25–1.49], while those with birth weight <2500 g were 10 times more likely to have amblyopia at the time of examination (OR=10.15, 95% CI=0.70–0.90). In addition, children with a positive family history of crossed eyes had an eightfold greater risk of having amblyopia (OR= 8.14, 95% CI =0.24–0.46).

Conclusion: Mother’s educational qualification at childbirth, low birth weight, and a positive family history of crossed eye were found to be strongly associated with the development of amblyopia.

Keywords: Amblyopia, primary school pupils, risk factors
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