Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics

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Prevalence of HIV-infection among under-5 children with protein energy malnutrition presenting at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

T Yusuf, NM Jiya, H Ahmed, J Baba, AS Haruna


Background: HIV infection is a major health problem worldwide. It is  associated with Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) among under-5 children
with attendant high morbidity and mortality.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV-infection among children presenting withvarious subtypes of PEM.
Methodology: Children suffering from PEM aged below 5 years admitted into the Paediatric units of UDUTH, Sokoto between October 1st, 2010 and April 30th, 2011 were tested for HIV infection using ELISA tests and HIVDNA
PCR. Nutritional status was determined using the modified Wellcome Classification and socioeconomic classification was by the scheme developed by Oyedeji,s. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 statistical package. P-value . 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: One-hundred under-5 children (64 males, 36 females) with PEM were studied. The mean (±SD) age was 19.8&#177 9.2 months and the majority were aged 12.0-23.9 months. Twentyseven of the 100 children with
PEM had HIV-infection giving a prevalence rate of 27%: 59.3% in males and 40.7% in females. Among the HIV-infected children, the 24.0 . 35.9 months age group was the most affected (53.8%). Infected and non-infected children were comparable in terms of age (χ2=7.35, p=0.12) , gender (χ2=0.36, p=0.55) and socioeconomic (χ2=3.01, p=0.25). The
mode of transmission was maternal to child transmission in all cases. The highest prevalence of HIV infection was found among marasmus subgroup (65%). Twenty-two (81.5%) of the 27 cases were discharged home, while
five patients died giving a case fatality rate of 18.5%.
Conclusion: HIV infection is common among under-5 children with PEM with no age, gender or socioeconomic predilection. The clinical type of PEM most often affected is marasmus.

Key words: Protein-energy malnutrition, HIV-infection, Under-5
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