Prevalence of anaemia in paediatric patients with HIV infection in Kano
Background: HIV infection affects virtually all systems of the body including the haematological system.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia in HIV infected children and compare with apparently healthy HIV negative age-sex matched controls.
Design: Case control hospitalbased study.
Methods: A total of 60 confirmed HIV infected antiretroviral naïve children and 60 HIV negative children were enrolled in a case control study of baseline haematological indices. In all cases, haemoglobin, total white blood cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelet counts were determined using SYSMEX XT- 2000i Haematologic auto-analyser. Children with HIV/AIDS were classified according to clinical disease stages using the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) staging criteria. Data was analysed using MINITAB 12.21 Atlanta USA statistical software.
Result: Anaemia (˂110 g/L) was present in 88.0% of the HIVinfected children, compared to 15.0% of controls (p = 0.001). Mild anaemia (70 – 109 g/L) was observed in 85.0% of HIVinfected children, compared to 15.0% of controls. Moderate anaemia (50 – 69 g/L) was present in 3.3% of HIV-infected children, but in none of the control. Leucopenia (˂4 × 109/L) was seen in 11.6% of HIV-infected children and in 5.0% of controls. Neutropenia (˂1.5 × 109/L) affected13% of infected children and 5% of controls. Lymphocytopenia (˂1.2 × 109/L) was observed in 3.3% of infected children but in none ofcontrols. Corresponding figures for thrombocytopenia (˂100 × 109/L) were6.7% of HIV infected children and 1.7% of controls.
Conclusion: All cells lines arereduced in HIV/AIDS and anaemia is the most frequent haematological manifestation seen in HIV/AIDS infection.
Key words: Prevalence, Anaemia; HIV, Paediatrics, Patients