Childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections in Northern Nigeria: At risk factors
Background: Childhood Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (ALRTI) remains an important public health problem in the developing world, with significant morbidity and mortality a challenge. An understanding of risk factors in the development of childhood ALRTI may offer clues to prevention of the disease; identify conditions that lead to progression to severe disease, complications and even death in a child receiving treatment.
Aim: to determine risk factors for ALRTI among Under five children hospitalized.
Methods: A prospective study of children aged 2-60 months admitted into hospital with diagnosis of pneumonia and bronchiolitis from November 2011 to September 2012 at the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. With a questionnaire data on socio- demographic and potential risk factors for ALRTI were obtained.
Results: A total of 50 children aged 2-60 months were enrolled, 92.0 % had pneumonia while 8.0% had bronchiolitis. 86.0% of pneumonia subjects were 24months and below, while all those with bronchiolitis were infants. 43(86.0%) of subjects were hospitalized in the rainy season. The weights for height z score was less than minus 2 in 12 (24.0 %) of the subjects. Significant risk factor for ALRTI was the use of kerosene and solid fuel for domestic cooking, 33 (66.0%), p value 0.0001; Mortality was four percent among the infants. We conclude that younger age under 24 months and exposure to hydrocarbon and biomass from indoor pollution was contributing risk factors for ALRTI in Under five children.
Key words: Acute lower respiratory tract infection, risk factors, hospitalization, under-five.