Haemoparasites of dogs in Makurdi and associated risk factors
The hemoparasites of dogs in Makurdi, as well as risk factors associated with their occurrence were determined between January, 2013 and March, 2014. A total of 100 blood samples were collected from dogs in Makurdi Metropolis. Of the 100 dogs involved in the study, 62(62%) were males and 38 (38%) were females, 47 (47%) were adults aged 1 year and above while 53 (53%) were below the age of 1 year, 45 (45%) were local breeds while 55 (53%) were exotic breeds. Seventy four (74%) of all dogs sampled were unconfined while 26 (26%) were confined. Thick blood smear, thin blood smear, buffy coat technique, Modified Knott technique and wet mount were used to detect haemoparasites. The result had an overall prevalence of 16% with Babesia spp (13%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (1%), Anaplasma platys (1%) and Ehrlichia canis 1 (1%). Of the 5 independent variables (risk factors) that were tested (age, breed, sex, location and management) by chi-square test, two had their p-value <0.25 and were subjected to the multilogistic regression model. These two variables were the breed of the dog and the management system. The final logistic model revealed that none of these variables in chi-square was a significant risk factor but were rather confounding factors. Thus, the occurrence of haemoparasites in Makurdi is not influenced by the hypothesized risk factor(s), however breed and management may be confounding factors.
Keywords: Haemoparasites; dog; prevalence; risk factors; Makurdi