Studies on parasitic contamination of soil and local drinking water sources, Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Water is essential to all living things on earth, however if contaminated, can be injurious to human health when consumed. This study evaluates the parasitic contamination of potable water sources and surrounding soil in Doma Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Forty-eight soil and water samples from different sources (wells, streams and boreholes) were collected from March to July 2017. Water samples were analyzed using the Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) floatation method while a modified Baermann Technique was used to microscopically examine soil samples for the parasitic presences. 32 water samples were parasitized including 2 protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia) 3 nematodes (Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm), and Fasciola hepatica a trematode. The nematodes were most contaminated 19(59.38%) while trematodes were least 1(3.13%). The most contamination was in stream water sources for late dry and early wet season (69.23% and 94.74%) while the boreholes had no contamination for both seasons. Prevalence of parasites in relation to water sources showed a high significant difference (p = 0.0000001), while there was no significant difference in relation to late dry and early rainy seasons (p = 0.1258). Geohelminths was highest around the boreholes 15(35.71%) but least in the streams 13(30.95%). However, there was no significant difference (p = 0.6221) in the prevalence rate of geohelminths in relation to sources of water. Result indicated a high rate of parasitic contamination of soil and drinking water sources in the study=area. Hence there is need for advocacy and enlightenment on the importance of proper drinking water treatment.
Keywords: Geohelminths; parasitic contamination; water