Hyper-endemicity of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in lower Niger Delta, southern Nigeria
Urinary schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic human parasitic infections initiated by Schistosoma haematobium. This cross-sectional survey of 844 children from two communities (Aviara and Igbide) in lower Niger Delta, Nigeria was carried out to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium from single urine samples by filtration techniques. Of the 844 urine samples examined, 479(56.75%) were infected with urinary schistosomiasis. Of the two populations investigated, Aviara community had the highest prevalence of 251(61.07%) and Igbide community with 228(52.66%). These observed difference in prevalence was statistically significantly (p = 0.4506). Irrespective of age, the female children recorded higher prevalence than male. In females the infection rates were 94 (62.67%) and 87(56.13) in Aviara and Igbide communities respectively, while the infection rates in males were 157 (62.55%) and 141 (50.72%) %) in the two communities, respectively. Intensity trend, like the prevalence values, peaked at age 11-13 years with an arithmetic mean of 2.20 and 1.90 (eggs/10 ml of urine) in Aviara and Igbide communities respectively. Generally, intensity of infection was higher in all age groups in Aviara than Igbide community. Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in Aviara and Igbide communities with significant variation in the level of infections among children investigated. The results support the necessity to reinvigorate and put in place an integrated and effective schistosomiasis control programme to put a stop to the spread of the disease.
Keywords: Schistosoma haematobium; prevalence; intensity; endemicity; Delta State; Nigeria