Parasitic helminth load in urban waste-water of Kenitra City, Morocco
Waste-waters of Kenitra City are rejected without any preliminary treatment in the receiving medium (Sebou River, Fouarat Lake). A small fraction is used to irrigate crops in the peri-urban area of Kenitra City. The parasitological characterization revealed an average parasitic helminth egg concentration of 25.07 per liter (±10.6). Nematodes have an average concentration of 19.79 (±12.4) eggs/L while cestodes have 5.27 (±8.6) eggs/L. However, the eggs and larvae of strongyloides were 11.02 (±2.4) eggs/L and 1.74 (±2.6) larve/L respectively. Most of the other idenitifed eggs were Ascaris sp. (13.04 ±8.6 eggs/L), Trichuris sp. (2.82 ±4.2 eggs/L), Nematodirus sp. (0.66 ±2.1 eggs/L), Enterobius vermicularis (1.64 ±3.6 eggs/L), Ancylostoma sp. (1.63 ±1.4 eggs/L) and strongyloides (11.02 ±10.5 eggs/L). Hymenolepis sp. (1.53 ±9.6 eggs/L), Moniezia expansa (1.91 ±6.6 eggs/ L) and Tænia sp. (1.82 ±2.7 eggs/L) were the observed cestodes. Eggs concentration varied between districts and the sampling seasons. The parasitological quality of the waste-water was much below the World Health Organization and the Morocco Ministry of the Environment Standards for re-use in agriculture (≤ 1 viable nematode egg per liter). We recommend that these waste-waters be processed before they are recycled in the Sebou River and Fouarat Lake or used for agriculture.
Keywords: waste-waters, parasitic eggs of helminths, Sebou, Fouarat, Kenitra City, Morocco.
Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol. 29 (1) 2008 pp. 20-28