Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences <p>Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (<em>Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.</em>) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US The Physiological Society of Nigeria owns copyright in the journal content. (Dr. A. R. A. Alada) (Dr S. T. Shittu (Editorial Assistant)) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 11:46:51 +0000 OJS 60 Effects of catechin, quercetin and taxifolin on redox parameters and metabolites linked with renal health in rotenone-toxified rats <p>Summary: Nephrotoxicity, with the attendant risk of progression to kidney failure, is a growing problem in many parts of the world. Current orthodox treatment options for nephrotoxicity and kidney failure are limited and there is need for alternative or complementary approaches. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of three structurally related flavonoids, catechin, quercetin and taxifolin on renal redox and metabolite biochemical disturbances in rotenone intoxicated animals. Male Wistar rats were administered 1.5 mg/kg rotenone (s.c.) for ten days followed by post-treatment with catechin (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), quercetin (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) and taxifolin (0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) (s.c.), for 3 days. Renal redox indices and levels of renal-related metabolites (creatinine, urea and uric acid) were assessed after sacrifice of animals. Catechin, quercetin and taxifolin significantly attenuated rotenone-induced effects on oxidative stress markers and metabolites linked to renal health. Quercetin was clearly more effective than catechin. The activity demonstrated by taxifolin, despite being administered at the lowest doses, was compelling. The results highlight the potential of these phytochemicals in the management of renal dysfunction. The findings additionally suggest a correlation between the structure of the flavonoids and their activity but also indicate that additional structural considerations beyond conventionally acknowledged ones may be involved.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Flavonoids, nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress, structure-activity relationship</p> O.O. Crown, O.O. Ogundele, A.C. Akinmoladun, C.D. Famusiwa, S.S. Josiah, M.T. Olaleye, A.A. Akindahunsi Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Coconut water prevents renal and hepatic changes in offspring of monosodium glutamate-treated Wistar rat dams <p>Summary: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely-consumed taste enhancer which has been implicated in the aetiology of renal and hepatic dysfunction in adults and their offspring. There is increasing evidence on the therapeutic properties of Coconut Water (CW) in kidney and liver disorders. This study investigated the effects of CW on renal and hepatic functions in offspring of MSG-fed dams. Twelve female Wistar rats (120 – 140 g) were grouped into four as follows; Control (10 ml/Kg distilled water), MSG (0.08 mg/Kg), CW (10 ml/Kg) and MSG+CW. Treatments were given orally daily commencing two weeks prior to mating, throughout mating and gestation until parturition. All dams received standard rodent diet and drinking water <em>ad libitum</em> throughout the study. After weaning on Post-Natal Day (PND) 28, serum was obtained from offspring for assay of liver and renal function. Histological analysis of the livers and kidneys were performed on both dams and offspring. There was no significant difference in liver enzymes, urea, creatinine and albumin levels amongst the offspring on PND 28. However, liver and kidney sections from MSG dams and their offspring showed early degenerative changes which were not evident in renal and hepatic tissues from CW and MSG+CW dams and offspring. These observations suggest that coconut water protects against monosodium glutamate-induced renal and hepatic dysfunction in dams and offspring.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Monosodium glutamate, <em>Cocos nucifera</em> water, Foetal programming, Kidney, Liver</p> O.T. Kunle-Alabi, O.O. Akindele, K.J. Charles, Y Raji Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Adiposity measures in metabolic syndrome among Hausas in Kano, Northern Nigeria <p>Summary: Ethnic variations exist in the relationship of adiposity indices with metabolic syndrome (MetS). There are however, limited studies on the usefulness of body adiposity index (BAI) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) among Hausas of Kano, Northern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of measures of adiposity to the components of MetS in Hausas of Kano. The study included 465 (266 males and 199 females) subjects, with mean age of 34.4 years and 32.0 years for males and females respectively. Anthropometric measures were obtained using standard protocols. Visceral adiposity was estimated using sex specific VAI. Fasting blood sample was obtained for serum analyses of lipid profiles, glucose, protein and uric acid. Pearson’s correlation was used to test the association between adiposity measures with MetS indices while Student’s t test was used for group comparison. The results of the study showed that the adiposity indices significantly correlate with metabolic syndrome indices. Visceral adiposity index was superior to other adiposity measures and Waist to hip ratio was the strongest anthropometric correlate of MetS components. In conclusion, WHR is the strongest anthropometric correlate of MetS components. Body adiposity index, NC and HC are weaker adiposity tools. Visceral adiposity index is superior to all other adiposity tools.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Adiposity measures, metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome biomarkers, Hausas, Northern Nigeria</p> A.Y. Asuku, B Danborno, S.A. Abubakar, A.J. Timbuak, L.H. Adamu Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Calcium-rich diet and vitamin D supplementation improve lipid profiles and reduce atherogenic index in high salt fed male Wistar rat <p>Summary: To ascertain the effect of calcium rich diet and/ or vitamin D supplementation on atherogenic parameters in high salt loaded rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into five groups of six rats each, namely; control; salt only; salt + Calcium; salt + Vit. D and salt + Vit. D + Calcium. High salt diet constituted 8% NaCl diet + 1% NaCl drinking water, while calcium diet was made from 2.5% CaCl<sub>2</sub> diet. Serum lipids and atherogenic indices were estimated using standard laboratory procedures. The control rats took normal rodent chow, the feeding lasted 6 weeks. Rats fed high salt diet only had significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, however this was significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased upon treatment with calcium rich diet and vitamin D supplementation. The high salt groups placed on Vit. D and/or calcium diet supplementation had a significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in low density lipoproteins, total cholesterol and atherogenic indices (cardiac risk ratio, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma) compared to the group fed on high salt only. These results suggest the ameliorative potentials of calcium rich diets and vitamin D supplementation against atherogenic tendencies and possibly cardiovascular diseases.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Calcium rich diet, vitamin D, serum lipids, atherogenic indices, high salt loading</p> O.E. Ofem, U.E. Okon, G.O. Ujong, O.S. Ekam Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 <i>Morinda lucida</i> aqueous stem bark extract ameliorates hepato-renal dysfunctions in experimental diabetes model <p>Summary: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a leading pan-systemic endocrine disorder with attendant high morbidity and mortality owing to its deleterious effects on vital body organs caused by untreated chronic hyperglycemia, attendant oxidative stress and glycation processes. The present study is designed to investigate possible protective role and mechanism(s) of action of 125-500 mg/kg/day of <em>Morinda lucida</em> aqueous stem bark extract (MLASE) on renal and hepatic functions in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats for 8 days. Forty-two alloxan-induced hyperglycemiic male Wistar rats were randomly allotted to Groups II-VI and orally treated with 10 ml/kg/day distilled water, 5 mg/kg/day glibenclamide, 125 mg/kg MLASE, 250 mg/kg MLASE, and 500 mg/kg/day MLASE, respectively. Group I normal rats served as untreated control and were orally treated with 10 ml/kg of distilled water, all under same sham-handling. Blood samples were taken for measurement of fasting blood glucose, renal and hepatic function profile. Liver and kidney tissue samples were taken for determination of the activities of oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD). Results showed that intraperitoneal injection with 120 mg/kg of alloxan in cold 0.9% normal saline reliably and significantly induced a steadily sustained hyperglycemia which were ameliorated by short-term oral treatment with 125-500 mg/kg/day of MLASE, dose dependently, similar to that ameliorated by the standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide. Similarly, MLASE significantly mitigated against derangements in the measured renal and hepatic function parameters as well as oxidative stress induced by alloxan-induced hyperglycemia. In conclusion, results of this study showed the protective role of 125-500 mg/kg/day of MLASE in chronic hyperglycemia-associated renal and hepatic dysfunctions which was mediated via antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of MLASE.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Induced hyperglycemia, hepatic and renal function profile, oxidative stress markers, <em>Morinda lucida</em></p> A.A. Adeneye, J.A. Olagunju, O Babatunde, O Oluyemi, O Awosope, G Oyekunle, H Ayuba, O Omoregie, O Omole Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cognitive dysfunction among <i>Primi gravidae</i> attending an <i>ante natal</i> clinic in Kano, Northwest Nigeria <p>Summary: Cognitive deficits among pregnant women have been reported, though the evidence is equivocal. Cognitive dysfunction during pregnancy may have negative consequences on maternal and child health. Yet, very little is known about cognitive function of pregnant women in general and <em>primi gravidae</em> in particular in the area under study. This study aimed to evaluate cognitive function among <em>primi gravidae</em>. About 120<em> primi gravidae</em> were studied in a large urban hospital in Kano. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to evaluate cognitive function; socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained. Data were processed using IBM SPSS statistics version 20.0. Significant values of P were those &lt; 0.05. The median age of the <em>primi gravidae</em> was 20.0 (3) years; 80 % of them had secondary school education, 88.3 % were in their third trimester of pregnancy and 42.5 % did not have any medical complaints at the time of presentation. The median MMSE score of the <em>primi gravidae</em> was 22.00 (19.0), indicating mild cognitive impairment. Majority of the women (88.3%) had either mild (58.3%) or severe (30%) cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive dysfunction was influenced by level of education (<em>X<sup>2</sup></em> = 11.961,<em> P</em> = 0.003) and type of presenting complaints (<em>X<sup>2</sup></em> = 13.514, <em>P</em> = 0.036). There was significant association between the mild cognitive impairment and level of education (<em>X<sup>2</sup></em> = 11.426, <em>P</em> = 0.022). This study concluded that the <em>primi gravidae</em> had mild cognitive impairment; with majority (88.3%) of them having cognitive dysfunction, which was significantly associated with level of educational attainment and was influenced by the level of education and presenting complaints.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> cognitive impairment, cognition, <em>primi gravidae</em>, pregnancy, Kano, Nigeria</p> I.U. Yarube, J Friday, A.W. Alhassan, M.I.A. Saleh Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ovarian weight, follicle count and retrieved oocyte characteristics in west African dwarf goat does experimentally infected with <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i> <p>Summary: Trypanosomosis has been described as the single largest disease entity limiting livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. The effects on ovarian weight, follicle count and retrieved oocyte characteristics in ten West African dwarf goat does (control=5, infected=5) experimentally infected with <em>Trypanosoma brucei</em> were investigated. The does were fed with elephant grass and supplement (15.23% CP) daily. Infected does received 4.8x10<sup>5</sup> <em>T. brucei</em> intravenously and thereafter, all does were synchronized using Lutalyse®. The results showed that the differences between control and infected does for ovarian weight (0.68±0.56 g and 0.40±0.09 g) and follicle count (10.50±1.25 and 2.50±1.22), respectively were significant (P&lt;0.05). The difference in retrieved-oocytes-count between control (30, 57.7%) and infected (22, 42.3%) does was not significant (P&gt;0.05). The differences in proportion between control and infected does for well-formed-oocytes (90.5% and 9.5%), completely-denuded-oocytes (30.8% and 69.2%) and proportion per group of oocytes with substantial-investment-of-cumulus (63.3% and 9.1%), respectively were significant (P&lt;0.05). The difference in extensively-denuded-oocytes between control (38.9%) and infected (61.1%) does was not significant (P&gt;0.05). These findings suggest that experimental <em>Trypanosoma brucei</em> infection caused reduction in ovarian weight and follicle count, number of oocytes as well as proportion of well-formed oocytes that are capable of supporting embryonic development.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Trypanosoma brucei</em>, goat does, Lutalyse®, ovarian follicles, oocytes</p> O.O. Leigh Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cytoarchitecture of the hippocampal formation in the African giant rat (<i>Cricetomys gambianus</i>, Waterhouse) <p>Summary: The African Giant Rat, AGR is an indigenous nocturnal rodent noted for its unique olfactory and cognitive abilities. They have been deployed more recently in the detection of landmines and diagnosis of tuberculosis – two scourges that have had a tremendous negative impact on the African landscape. This olfactory-aided cognition has been linked to the hippocampus. While the anatomical infrastructure of the olfactory bulb of the AGR has been elucidated, little is known about the adaptive cytoarchitecture of the AGR hippocampal formation. This study describes the histological features, including subfields and stratifications of the AGR hippocampus using Nissl and Golgi stains. The basic cytoarchitecture of the AGR hippocampus observed in this study, with respect to stratification, subfields and cell types, is similar to those reported in the laboratory rats. Cell types identified in the AGR hippocampus include pyramidal cells, granule cells and mossy cells with mossy fibers and Schaffer collaterals also delineated. Hippocampal proper subfields CA1 to CA4 were identified. CA3 pyramidal neurons formed a well-defined cell layer starting in between the upper and lower ends of the dentate gyrus and had larger, more distinct pyramidal cells and higher cell layer thickness (240.0±6.0 μm) relative to subfields CA1 (87.0±2.0 μm) and CA2 (109.0±4.20 μm) with significant statistical differences at p&lt;0.001. The detailed, delicate arrangement of various cell types and subfields, intricate wiring with synapses and laminar organization of the hippocampal formation noticed in the AGR strongly supports the canonical trisynaptic circuitry of the hippocampus. It will however be necessary to carry out densitometric studies and detailed neurochemical profiling of the AGR hippocampus to fully elucidate the functional leverage of this unique rodent. We, therefore, suggest the suitability of this rodent as a model for olfaction-linked memory studies.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> African giant rat, brain, cornu ammonis, dentate gyrus, hippocampus, histology</p> O.A. Mustapha, M.A. Olude, B Taiwo, J.O. Olopade Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pulmonary responses following quercetin administration in rats after intratracheal instillation of amiodarone <p>Summary: Amiodarone, a drug that treats arrhythmias induces pulmonary toxicity through interplay between oxidative stress and inflammation. Quercetin, a flavonoid widely occurring in natural products possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin on pulmonary responses in rats after amiodarone intra-tracheal instillation. Eighteen female Wistar rats (150-250 g) were randomly assigned into three groups of six animals each namely; control, amiodarone (AMI) and amiodarone + Quercetin (AMI + Quercetin) groups. AMI group received 2 intra-tracheal instillations of amiodarone (6.25mg/kg in 0.3ml of water) on days 0 and 2 and 0.4ml of 2% DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) orally from day 0 for 3 weeks. AMI + Quercetin group was administered 2 intratracheal instillations of amiodarone on days 0 and 2 and 20mg/kg body weight of quercetin in 2% DMSO from day 0 for 3 weeks. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected to determine total cell polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell and macrophage counts. Inflammation of the lung tissues was also assessed. Macrophage count of AMI + Quercetin group was significantly lowered (p&lt;0.01) compared to AMI group. Inflammation rate of the AMI + Quercetin group was significantly reduced compared to AMI group (p&lt;0.01). Quercetin treatment markedly suppressed amiodarone induced toxicity in the pulmonary tissues.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Amiodarone, Quercetin, Pulmonary inflammation, Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Intra-tracheal instillation</p> V.O. Oka, U.E. Okon, E.E. Osim Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fatty acids in some cooking oils as agents of hormonal manipulation in a rat model of benign prostate cancer <p>Anti-androgenic substances, mainly prostate 5α-reductase inhibitors, used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been associated with side effects in man and animals. To reduce these side effects as well as suppress BPH development, the management of the condition has come to include dietary interventions. This study investigated the effect of some cooking oils on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate in rats. Male Sprague-dawley rats were distributed into eighteen groups (n=6) as A-R. A negative control group was injected subcutaneously with soya oil; while prostatic hyperplasia was induced subcutaneously in groups B-R with 3mg/kg testosterone daily for 14days. Group B was the positive control (BPH group) while groups C-R were also administered orally 800mg/kg of coconut, castor, canola, cottonseed, pomegranate, blackseed, sheabutter, olive oil, codliver, sardine, palm, repeatedly heated palm (RHPO), vegetable, repeatedly-heated vegetable (RHVO), sesame, and groundnut oils respectively, daily, for 14 days. Blood sample was drawn via retro-orbital sinus for the estimation of serum testosterone(T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) level and rats were thereafter euthanized to obtain the prostates for T and DHT determination as well as tissue weights. Data are mean ± SEM, compared by ANOVA. The oils significantly reduced the increase in prostate weight (PW) to body weight (BW) ratio induced by testosterone. Apart from the fact that all the oils reduced the PW:BW ratio, the blackseed, sheabutter, sardine, vegetable and groundnut oils suppressed the DHT level in the serum, while pomegranate, olive, RHPO reduced DHT level in the prostate compared to the BPH rats. This study suggests that blackseed, sheabutter, sardine, vegetable, groundnut, pomegranate, olive, and RHPO oils could inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> benign prostatic hyperplasia, cooking oils, fatty acids, rat, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone</p> O Oyelowo, C Okafor, A Ajibare, B Ayomidele, K Dada, R Adelakun, B Ahmed Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Haemogram and serum biochemical values of four indigenous species of monkeys in south west Nigeria <p>Summary: Haematological and serum biochemical values are useful guides and biomarkers in health and diseases for reaching a diagnosis, estimating disease prognosis and monitoring treatment progress, in mammals. Reference ranges for some parameters differ among species of mammals and between sexes within a species. There is dearth of information on standard reference value for blood parameters for Nigerian indigenous monkeys. Whole blood and serum samples obtained from 50 apparently healthy adult monkeys in both captivity and from the wild in southwest Nigeria were subjected to haematology and serum biochemistry to obtain preliminary reference values for haematological and serum biochemical analytes for <em>Cercocebus sebaeus</em> (Green monkey), <em>Cercopithecus mona</em> (Mona monkey), <em>Erythrocebus patas</em> (Patas monkey) and<em> Papio anubis</em> (Anubis baboon). Numerical data were summarized as mean and standard deviation and subjected to statistical analysis; Student t test and analysis of variance, to compare values of blood parameters obtained between species and gender. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. The hematocrit of male animals were significantly higher than that of females (P=0.01) in all the 4 species studied but there was no significant difference in other blood parameters such as total white blood cell and the differential counts, platelet count, serum aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, total plasma protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations between the sexes. Generally, there was no significant difference between total white blood cell and the differential counts, hematocrit, red cell count, haemoglobin concentration, platelet count, serum aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, total plasma protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations among the monkey species.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Haematology, Monkeys, Reference data, Serum biochemistry</p> B.N. Ogunro, P.I. Otuh, J.O. Ogunsola, O.N. Kolawole, H.O. Jegede, O Makinde, J Ademakinwa, O Morenikeji Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ameliorative effects of hydromethanolic extract of <i>Citrullus lanatus</i> (watermelon) rind on semen parameters, reproductive hormones and testicular oxidative status following nicotine administration in male Wistar rats <p>Summary: The present study examines the possible ameliorative effects of the hydromethanolic extract of <em>Citrullus lanatus</em> rind (HECL) on some reproductive function and oxidative indices of the testes in male Wistar rats following administration of nicotine. Twenty male rats were assigned into four groups: Group A to D of five rats each. Group A served as control and received 2ml/kg body weight of 10% extract vehicle; Group B received 1mg/kg body weight of nicotine; Group C were co-administered 1mg/kg body weight nicotine and 500 mg/kg body weight of HECL and Group D received only 500mg/kg body weight of HECL. The drugs and extracts were administered orally to the rats for 42days; blood samples were collected by direct cardiac puncture for determination of serum concentrations of testosterone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone. The testes were also harvested for determination of semen parameters: motility, morphology, viability and count and testicular tissue processed for superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde concentration. Compared to Group A control rats, administration of HECL significantly increased sperm count and reproductive hormone concentrations amongst Group B rats (p&lt;0.05). Treatment with nicotine caused a significant reduction in the levels of all reproductive hormones with significant diminution of some sperm parameters: motility, morphology and viability; and decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in malondialdehyde concentration amongst Group B rats compared to Group A control rats (p&lt;0.05). Co-administration of HECL with nicotine to Group C rats apparently reversed the effects of nicotine resulting in significant increases in sperm count and the reproductive hormones concentration as compared to Group A control rats (p&lt;0.05). Amongst Group D rats, the extract also caused a significant increase in superoxide dismutase concentration and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde concentration compared with the Group A control rats (p&lt;0.05). The findings suggest that the hydromethanolic extract of<em> Citrullus lanatus</em> rind possibly ameliorates the deleterious effects of nicotine on some reproductive indices in male Wistar rats.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Citrullus lanatus</em>; nicotine, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, semen; reproductive hormones</p> T Kolawole, O Adienbo, V Dapper Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reproductive indices and oxidative stress biomarkers of male Wistar rats prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke <p>Summary: The negative influence of cigarette smoking on developing fetus is well documented but reports of prenatal cigarette smoking on male reproductive hormones are controversial. However, shortened anogenital distance (AGD) has been established to be an indicator of potential male infertility. We therefore investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to passive cigarette smoke on AGD, reproductive hormones and oxidative stress biomarkers of Wistar rats. Female rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=5) and cohabited with male. Group 1 was exposed to smoke from an idling cigarette from day 1 of gestation till parturition, while Group 2 served as control (no-exposure). Morphometric variables of the litters were recorded on postnatal day 1 (PND1) and at 6<sup>th</sup> week postnatal life. The male offspring were then sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were analysed using ELISA. Serum levels of Catalase, sodium dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid profile and liver function biomarkers were examined spectrophotometrically. On PND1, crown rump length and total body length of rats prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke were significantly shorter. Significantly shorter AGD and crown rump length were also observed at 6<sup>th</sup> week. Testosterone, LH and FSH were not significantly affected. Cigarette smoke exposure significantly decreased Catalase and SOD while MDA increased. Liver function biomarkers, HDL and LDL were not affected but serum levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride significantly increased. The observed decline in AGD and precipitation of oxidative stress by intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure may predispose to male infertility at adulthood.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Prenatal, Cigarette smoke, Anogenital distance, Sex hormones, Oxidative stress</p> O.O. Obembe, T.F. Olatoke, T.G. Atere Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 D-dimer as a predictor of altered coagulation in HIV patients in Nigeria <p>Summary: Recent medical advances have improved the quality of life and correspondingly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. However increased life expectancy has led to a relative rise in comorbidities and complications such as alterations in coagulation systems. This study is aimed at the evaluation of D-dimer level as a predictor of thromboembolic risk in HIV patients. A total of 152 HIV positive and negative subjects and control respectively attending the PEPFAR clinic UCH in Ibadan were recruited both for a questionnaire-based survey and a coagulation profile screening. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Prothrombin Time (PT), D-dimer level the viral load indices of the HIV patients and their CD4 counts were also evaluated. In the subjects, the D-dimer level was significantly higher (193.6 ± 177.00ng/ml) than the controls (118.10 ± 140.58ng/ml) while a significantly lower APTT was also reported (36.22 ± 4.05 seconds) compared to the controls (41.14 ± 8.87 seconds). An evaluation of the coagulation profile in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) naive and experienced group revealed only a significant difference (417.4 ± 162.0 versus 268.2 ± 193.5; p value 0.000) in the CD4 counts whilst no significant changes in the coagulation profile. In our study, a higher predisposition to a hypercoagulable state presenting as a short APTT was observed. This finding along with the higher D-dimer level underscores the relevance of the evaluation of this biomarker as an important predictor of thromboembolic event risk.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> HIV, thrombotic event, D-dimer, altered coagulation profile, CD4 count, APTT, PT</p> F.A. Aisabokhale, T.S. Akingbola, K Bamidele Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 <i>Raffia hookeri</i> ethanolic pulp extract ameliorated neuronal damage and brain oxidative stress following mechanical-induced traumatic brain injury in rats <p>Summary: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex process resulting into structural brain damage and functional deficits as a result of an external mechanical force. This study aimed to investigate the possible ameliorative effect of <em>Raphia hookeri</em> ethanol extract (RHEE) on induced acute traumatic brain injury in rats. The choice of the plant was based on its reported anti-oxidative property. Thirty-six female Wistar rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. I: CONTROL - distilled water orally; II: RHEE - 100 mg/kg RHEE; III: Sharp trauma brain injury (STBI); IV: STBI+RHEE; V: Blunt trauma brain injury (BTBI); VI: BTBI+RHEE. Brain injury was inflicted using modified weight drop technique on experimental day 1 while RHEE was given orally by gavage for 7 days post-injury. Blood was collected serially 24hrs, 72hrs and 7 days post-trauma for full blood count and differentials of the white blood cells. On day nine, rats were euthanized and brain harvested for biochemical and histological analyses. Trauma significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced the relative brain weight of rats compared with the control. Lymphocyte count increased while neutrophils reduced in all traumatized rats compared with control group. Both BTBI and STBI significantly (p&lt;0.05) elevated MDA and significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced the level of GSH, the activities of SOD and CAT enzymes compared with control group. Histologically, the extent of haemorrhage into the subarachnoid and brain parenchyma in STBI and BTBI groups was reduced in the BTBI+RHEE and STBI+RHEE groups. Administration of RHEE reduced oxidative damage and ameliorated neuronal damage in sharp and blunt brain injuries.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Raphia palm fruit, induced brain injury, oxidative stress, white blood cells, cerebral cortex, haemorrhage</p> O Owoeye, F.O. Awoyemi, I.O. Imosemi, F.A. Atiba, A.O. Malomo Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of obesity on sympathovagal activities in hypertensive Indian population <p>Summary: Decreased physical activity, increased psychosocial stress and work stress have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity and Hypertension (HTN). Irrespective of the aetiology, sympathetic over activity has been recognized as the main pathophysiologic mechanism in the genesis of obesity and HTN. Sympathovagal imbalance or dysregulation of autonomic functions owing to sympathetic over activity and vagal withdrawal is reported to be the basis of many clinical disorders. Obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are known to be associated with dysregulation of autonomic functions independently. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has emerged as a practical, non-invasive tool to quantitatively investigate cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether obesity has any effect on further disruption of autonomic functions particularly in hypertensive patients. A total of 96 male and female adults aged between 40-50 years visiting the Primary Health Centre, Yelwala, Mysuru district, India were recruited for this study. They were grouped in to 3 (n=32) as Groups I (Obese hypertensive), II (non-obese hypertensive) and II (non-obese normotensive, control), HRV was determined using the One minute during deep breathing method. Data were presented as Mean ± SD, inferential statistics was by One Way ANOVA and Tukey’s Post Hoc test p value &lt;0.005 at <sup>α</sup>0.05 HRV was significantly decreased in obese hypertensive patients compared to the non-obese hypertensive patients. Our present study supports that obesity and hypertension probably has additive effect in causing autonomic dysregulation.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Autonomic functions, HRV, Hypertension, Obesity</p> S.D. Mamatha, Gowd Aruna Ramachandra, M.C. Smitha Copyright (c) Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000