Sensitivity of Computed Tomography‑guided Transthoracic Biopsies in a Nigerian Tertiary Institution
Introduction: The indications for open biopsies for intrathoracic lesions have become almost negligible. This development was made possible by less invasive maneuvers such as computed tomography‑guided (CT‑guided) biopsy, thoracoscopy or video‑assisted thoracoscopy, and bronchoscopy. CT‑guided percutaneous lung biopsy was first reported in 1976. Aim of Study: The aim of the study is to report our experience with CT‑guided transthoracic biopsy. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinical and radiological evidence of intrathoracic mass were counseled and consent obtained for the procedure. They were positioned in the gantry, either supine or prone. A scout scan of the entire chest was taken at 5 mm intervals. The procedure was carried out by the consultants and senior registrar. Following visualization of the lesion, its position in terms of depth and distance from the midline was measured with the machine in centimeter to determine the point of insertion of the trucut needle (14–18‑G). The presumed site of the lesion was indicated with a metallic object held in place with two to three strips of plasters after cleaning the site with Povidone‑iodine. After insertion, repeat scans were performed to confirm that the needle was within the mass. A minimum of 3 core cuts was taken to be certain that the samples were representative. The results were analyzed by the determination of means and percentages. Results: Twenty‑six patients underwent this procedure between 2011 and 2015. There were 15 males and 11 females (M:F = 1.4:1). The age range was between 30 and 99 years with a mean of 55 years. Histological diagnosis was obtained in 24 of the patients giving sensitivity of 92.3%. There were 3 mild complications giving a rate of 11.5%. The complications included a case of mild hemoptysis and two patients who had mild pneumothoraces which did not require tube thoracostomy. Conclusion: CT‑guided biopsy is a reliable procedure for obtaining deep‑seated intrathoracic biopsies with high sensitivity and minimal complication rate.
Keywords: Complications, computed tomography, sensitivity, transthoracic biopsy