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Pattern of Ocular Involvement in Midface Injuries Seen at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern Nigeria


Benjamin Fomete
Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo
Rowlan Agbara
Daniel Otasowie Osunde
Emmanuel R Abah

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was to report the etiology, pattern, and spectrum of ocular injuries in patients with maxillofacial injuries seen at a tertiary care hospital in northern Nigeria.  Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective evaluation of the etiology, spectrum, and treatment of ocular injures seen in patients with midfacial fractures, who presented at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria, a tertiary care hospital in northern Nigeria. Cases were seen at the oral and maxillofacial clinic for those presenting with midfacial fractures, whereas those presenting with ocular injuries due to midfacial injuries were referred from the ophthalmology department. Data were collected on their demographics, etiology of injuries, body part(s) involved, and treatment. Results: A total of 256 patients had midfacial injuries during the period, of which 219 patients had 357 associated ocular injuries. The age range was between 3 and 76 years. There were more males (83.8%) than females (16.2%), giving a male-to-female ratio of 5.2:1; the 21–30 years' age bracket was most frequently affected (38.4%). The predominant etiology of injuries was road traffic accidents (RTAs) (90.1%), followed by assault (4.9%). Zygomatic complex fractures (38.6%) and orbital wall fractures (24.7%) were the common midfacial injuries. There were 357 ocular injuries, giving a patient: injury ratio of 1:1.6, with subconjunctival hemorrhage (32.5%) and ruptured globe (20.0%) being common. Treatments performed were reduction and immobilization of midfacial fractures plus evisceration (32.0%), followed by reduction and immobilization of fractures alone (23.9%) and reduction and immobilization plus grafting of soft tissues (21.2%). Conclusion: Ocular injuries are quite common in patients with midfacial injuries, with a ratio of 1.6:1. RTA was the most common etiology, with zygomatic complex fractures as the most common midfacial injury. Subconjunctival hemorrhage was the most common ocular injury manifestation, with young adults (21–30 years of age) being most affected. Treatment often involved reduction and immobilization of midface fractures with evisceration and grafting of ocular tissues.