Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS infection in Nigerian patients seen in Kano
AbstractObjective: To determine the pattern and prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-infected Nigerian patients seen in a referral centre.
Design: Prospective hospital based study.
Setting: Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano-a tertiary health institution servicing the entire north-western Nigeria.
Subjects: 205 HIV infected individuals who consented to participate in the study.
Method: All patients were interviewed and examined by at least two Dental Surgeons trained in diagnosis of oral manifestations of HIV. Data were captured on adapted WHO recording form for oral lesions associated with HIV, transferred and analyzed using MINITAB12.21 (U.S.A).
Results: The age range was18-61 years (mean=33.7, S.D =8.0).The M: F =1.2:1; There was statistically significant difference (t=8.1, DF=201, P-value = 0.001) between mean age for males (37.3; S.D.=7.8years) and females (29.5; SD=5.9 years). Overall, 140 (68.3%) patients had at least one oral lesion. Most common lesion was candidosis (60.5%) and the pseudomembranous (45.4%) type was most frequent. Other lesions were HIV gingivitis (27.8%), hairy leukoplakia (14.2%), aphthous ulcer (9.8%), Kaposi's sarcoma (8.3%), melanin hyper-pigmentations (7.3%), herpes simplex infection (5.4%), HIV periodontitis (4.9%), parotid enlargement (1.9%) and HIV-NOMA (0.5%). The mean CD4 counts were 301, 268 and 289 for those without oral lesion, with single lesion and multiple oral lesions respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (ANOVA F=0.36 DF=2 P=0.7).
Conclusion: Oral lesions are frequently seen in HIV-infected Nigerian patients and the pattern of occurrence is not markedly different from those reported from other African countries.
Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research Vol. 7(1&2) 2005: 176-181