Simulation of Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems
Transients in power systems are initiated by abrupt changes to otherwise steady operating conditions. These changes would be as a result of any of the following: opening or closing of circuit breakers, switching conditions, lightning or any other fault condition. For purposes of power system analysis these conditions are simulated using mathematical models. In the formulation of these mathematical models efforts are made to represent changes in transmission line characteristics, such as the variation of line parameters with frequency.
Electromagnetic (EM) transients produced by these mathematical models serve as a useful reference in the design of protective devices and fault locators. It is therefore pertinent to examine the effect of faithful reproduction of line characteristics in the simulated transients with respect to the performance of fault locators tested with the simulated transients. Such investigation has shown that the computational burden involved in trying to represent all line characteristics in transients calculations could be saved.