Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Analyses of Drinking Water in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State
Physicochemical, heavy metals and bacteriological analysis of drinking water samples from ten (10) geo-referenced points in five communities of Ibeno Local Government Area were conducted to ascertain their quality. Two sampling sessions were carried out in each season; totaling four (4) different sessions for both wet and dry season. Physicochemical and heavy metal parameters were assessed in the drinking water samples and the results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV) standards. Some physicochemical parameters like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, nickel, cadmium and copper showed positive (+), deviation from WHO and FMENV Standards (that is not exceeded the standards), while calcium, zinc, iron, lead and manganese deviated negatively from these standards. Also ten (10) bacterial species isolated were identified as Bacillus subtilis, micrococcus varians, Esherichia coli, streptococcus, faecalis, enterococus faecalis, salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus, clostridium perfringens, proteus vulgaris and pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total coliform count of the water samples ranged from 0 cfu/100ml at Mkpanak to 38 cfu/100ml at Ikot Inwang. The most frequently occurring bacteria were, E. Coli (27%) followed by C. Perfringens (20%) while B subtilis (3%), M. varians (3%) and P. vulgaris (3%) were the least. High counts of indicator bacteria also constitute a threat to public health. Bacteriological quality of the drinking water samples in some areas except Mkpanak did not meet the WHO recommended standard. Against the background of the implications of the findings, the study recommends the establishment of good water works for provision of good quality drinking water, modern sanitary and sewage disposal facilities, creation of awareness among the people enforcement by regulatory bodies and regular monitoring of drinking water quality, its compliance with the standards and its impact on the health of the people of Ibeno Local Government Area.