Energy and Economic Losses Due to Constant Power Outages in Nigeria
This study assesses the economic implication of electricity self-generation in Nigeria. In this regard, energy and exergetic utilization efficiencies of 19 representative generators and gas turbines from Afam power station were assessed based on real data obtained through survey of companies, oral interview, individuals and also experiments carried out during the course of the study. Energy and exergy analyses were conducted to study the variations of energy and exergetic efficiencies for petrol, diesel and natural gas generators. Energy and exergetic efficiencies for the generators were found to be the same. Energy/exergetic efficiencies were in the range of 0.19% to 16.20% and the average energy/exergetic efficiencies for diesel, petrol and natural gas generators were found to be 9.59%, 4.43% and 0.27%, respectively. The results of the analysis also show that the economic losses associated with self-generation of electricity is high. Compared to an average Power Holding Company of Nigeria, tariff of N12.20/kWh, the average costs of self-generation for petrol, diesel and natural gas generators were found to be N46.30/kWh, N47.74/kWh and N6.44/kWh, while the average cost rates of exergy losses were found to be N1,076.34, N114,165.34 and N238,810.76, respectively. The study also suggested some solutions to Nigeria’s constant power outages. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study will be helpful to an average Nigerian in understanding the Naira losses associated with the use of generators. These will also assist energy policy makers and governments at all levels in developing highly applicable and productive planning for future energy policies in Nigeria.