Performance evaluation of clay-sawdust composite filter for point of use water treatment

  • CC Nnaji
  • BC Afangideh
  • C Ezeh
Keywords: Point of use, filter, water, water treatment, sawdust.


Water borne diseases have remained a major challenge in most developing countries. This is usually as a result of lack of access to clean water and contamination associated with water fetching and conveyance. This work explores the possibility of improving water quality and eliminating the possibility of recontamination by the use of point of use (POU) water filters made from cheap locally available materials. The performance of POU water filters for the purification of water obtained from various sources was investigated.  Sawdust was used as a burnout material in order to enhance the rate of filtration. The clay was first characterized and then various proportions (5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% by weight) of sawdust were mixed with the clay for filter production. The clay was found to have a specific gravity of 2.4, a high liquid limit of 81.6% and a medium plastic limit of 48.54%. The flow rates of the filters ranged between 0.0005litres/hr for the filter with 5% sawdust and 0.8litres/hr for the filter with 50% sawdust. The average removal of suspended solids (SS) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was 98.6% and 33% respectively while the mean Log10 reduction in total count (TC) was 93.1%. Result of analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference between the performances of the filters. However, there was a significant difference between the flow rates with F(18.71) > F critical (5.14). This implies that while burnout materials improve water quality, increasing burnout materials in clay filters beyond 50% does not significantly affect the performance for the filter with respect to the quality of effluent but with respect to flow rate.

Agricultural, Bioresources, Biomedical, Food, Environmental & Water Resources Engineering

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2467-8821
print ISSN: 0331-8443