https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njtd/issue/feed Nigerian Journal of Technological Development 2024-02-26T17:57:57+00:00 Dr. H. U. Hambali njtd_editor_chief@unilorin.edu.ng Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Nigerian Journal of Technological Development</em> (NJTD) is a quarterly publication of the Faculty of Engineering &amp; Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. It publishes original high-quality articles focusing on all aspects of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Manuscripts are double-blind peer-reviewed and if found suitable, are published as full length research articles or review papers. Our publications are scheduled for March, June, September and December.</p> <p>Please note that this Journal does not receive manuscripts via this website. To submit your manuscript to the NJTD, please click on the link: <a href="https://njtd.com.ng/submissions" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://njtd.com.ng/submissions</a>.</p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njtd/article/view/265850 Morphological, Mechanical and Thermal Characteristics of PLA /<i>Cocos nucifera</i> L Husk and PLA/<i>Zea mays</i> Chaff Lignin Fibre Mats Composites 2024-02-26T13:54:25+00:00 O.P. Gbenebor ogbenebor@unilag.edu.ng C.C. Odili ogbenebor@unilag.edu.ng V.D. Obasa ogbenebor@unilag.edu.ng E.F. Ochulor ogbenebor@unilag.edu.ng S.O. Kusoro ogbenebor@unilag.edu.ng O.C. Udogu-Obia ogbenebor@unilag.edu.ng S.O. Adeosun ogbenebor@unilag.edu.ng <p>Polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with low elongation which limits its use in some applications. The incorporation of biowaste&nbsp; particles has been employed to improve its properties. This work thus examines the impact of lignin particles reinforced on electrospun&nbsp; PLA fibre mats. Acid hydrolysis (1M of HCl at 60 and 100 <sup>o</sup>C for 2 and 4 h was used to extract lignin from Cocos nucifera L (CNHL) and Zea&nbsp; Mays Chaff (CCL). Lignin particles were added to molten PLA, stirred, and electrospun at 26 kV, using a static aluminum collector plate placed at 121mm from the spinneret tip. Morphological examination reveals that fibre diameter of neat PLA (9.7 µm) increased from 107&nbsp; – 285 % with the additions of reinforcements. Maximum tensile strength of 1.03 MPa is recorded for PLA/CNHL 60<sup>o</sup>C /2 h. This composite&nbsp; maintains the highest elongation of 0.069 % compared to neat PLA (0.046 %). X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) result informs that the&nbsp; crystallinity of neat PLA (67.6 %) improves by 3%, with the use of CNHL 60 <sup>o</sup>C/ 2 h. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) result shows that&nbsp; both fibre composites possess better thermal stability (380 <sup>o</sup>C) compared to reinforcing PLA fibre (319 <sup>o</sup>C).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njtd/article/view/265871 Influence of stenosis severity on hemodynamics flow at low Reynolds numbers: A computational fluid dynamic study 2024-02-26T17:31:45+00:00 I.A. Fetuga fetugaebraheem@gmail.com O. Oluwatusin fetugaebraheem@gmail.com S.M. Abolarin fetugaebraheem@gmail.com O.O. Olakoyejo fetugaebraheem@gmail.com A.O. Adelaja fetugaebraheem@gmail.com D.Z. Olaoye fetugaebraheem@gmail.com A.S. Adeleke fetugaebraheem@gmail.com J.K. Gbegudu fetugaebraheem@gmail.com K.S. Aderemi fetugaebraheem@gmail.com <p>No Abstract</p> 2024-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njtd/article/view/265856 Impact of deposition voltage on the physical properties of rare earth element doped strontium sulphide for optoelectronic application 2024-02-26T14:58:55+00:00 S.O. Samuel imosobomeh.ikhioya@unn.edu.ng C.K. Ojoba imosobomeh.ikhioya@unn.edu.ng E.P. Ogherohwo imosobomeh.ikhioya@unn.edu.ng I.L. Ikhioya imosobomeh.ikhioya@unn.edu.ng <p>In this study, electrochemical deposition was used to synthesize SrS-doped zirconium materials at a varying voltage of deposition. The&nbsp; XRD result shows that SrS/Zr has a prominent peak intensity corresponding to 2theta values of 26.45<sup>o</sup> , 33.86<sup>o</sup> , 38.01<sup>o</sup> , and 51.49<sup>o</sup> . The&nbsp; crystal lattice is shown by the prominent peak intensity with higher 2theta degree values; the appearance of an unindexed peak is caused&nbsp; by the substrate utilized for the deposition. SrS surface morphology reveals a Clove-like surface with precipitate visible in the SrS&nbsp; micrograph; the large grain size on the surface of the substrate exhibits photon absorption but lacks any signs of pinholes. At the&nbsp; introduction of zirconium as a dopant to the SrS precursor, there was a drastic change in the precursor which is also noticed on the surface micrograph of the analyzed films. The films show a decrease in thickness from 129.14 to 120.0<sup>9</sup> nm and an increase in film&nbsp; resistivity from 1.24 x 109 to 1.29 x 10<sup>9</sup> ohm.m, which further led to a decrease in conductivity from 8.06 x 10<sup>8</sup> to 7.75 x 10<sup>8</sup> S/m. The&nbsp; impact of the deposition voltage on the reflectance reveals that lower voltage will stabilize the reflectance of SrS/Zr which will be useful&nbsp; for photovoltaic applications. SrS has an energy bandgap of 1.50 eV while SrS/Zr with bandgap energy of 2.00 – 2.50 eV.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njtd/article/view/265857 Enhancing Power Quality with PDO-FOPID Controller in Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Grid-Connected Hybrid Renewables 2024-02-26T15:06:27+00:00 S. Nagaraju Samalanagaraju.eee@gmail.com B. chandramouli Samalanagaraju.eee@gmail.com <p>Addressing the pressing research problem of power fluctuations and grid harmonics in the integration of renewable energy, our&nbsp; proposed control strategy utilizes the Prairie Dog Optimization Fractional Order Proportional Integral Derivative (PDO-FOPID) controller&nbsp; within a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) system. This innovative approach is tailored to mitigate harmonics and meet load&nbsp; requirements in grid-connected hybrid renewables. The UPQC system is instrumental in regulating coupling point voltage, countering&nbsp; voltage and current harmonics to enhance overall power quality. The PDO-FOPID controller dynamically adapts control parameters to system dynamics and load changes, ensuring a stable power supply despite the variability of renewable sources. Simulations in MATLAB/ Simulink confirm its superiority over traditional control strategies, such as PI, sliding mode, and fuzzy control, in harmonics mitigation,&nbsp; load fulfilment, and power stability. By effectively addressing these challenges, our proposed solution not only contributes to resolving a&nbsp; critical research problem but also advances the seamless integration of Hybrid Renewable Energy Sources (HRES) into power systems,&nbsp; thereby enhancing overall grid performance and the efficacy of renewable energy integration.&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njtd/article/view/265862 Performance Analysis of Intelligent Computational Algorithms for Biomass Higher Heating Value Prediction 2024-02-26T16:39:48+00:00 U.A. Dodo usman.dodo@bazeuniversity.edu.ng M.A. Dodo usman.dodo@bazeuniversity.edu.ng A.F. Shehu usman.dodo@bazeuniversity.edu.ng Y.A. Badamasi usman.dodo@bazeuniversity.edu.ng <p>Higher heating value (HHV) is an essential parameter to consider when evaluating and choosing biomass substrates for combustion and&nbsp; power generation. Traditionally, HHV is determined in the laboratory using an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter. Meanwhile, this&nbsp; approach is laborious and cost-intensive. Hence, it is essential to explore other viable options. In this study, two distinct artificial&nbsp; intelligence-based techniques, namely, a support vector machine (SVM) and an artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to develop&nbsp; proximate analysis-based biomass HHV prediction models. The input variables comprising ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon were&nbsp; paired to form four separate inputs to the prediction models. The overall findings showed that both the ANN and the SVM tools can guarantee accurate prediction in all the input combinations. The optimal prediction performances were observed when fixed carbon and&nbsp; volatile matter were paired as the input combination. This combination showed that the ANN outperformed the SVM, having presented&nbsp; the least root mean squared error of 0.0008 and the highest correlation coefficient of 0.9274. This study, therefore, concluded that the&nbsp; ANN is more preferred compared to SVM for biomass HHV prediction based on the proximate analysis.&nbsp; </p> 2024-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njtd/article/view/265865 Numerical Analysis of the Thermodynamic Response of a Hollow Concrete Cylinder 2024-02-26T16:59:59+00:00 T.T. Akano honovo@unilag.edu.ng H.O. Onovo honovo@unilag.edu.ng O.S. Osasuyi honovo@unilag.edu.ng S.A. Alabi honovo@unilag.edu.ng <p>The stability and durability of concrete materials are essential factors in the construction industry. Environmental conditions, such as&nbsp; temperature affect the tensile strength and durability of concrete structures. This work investigates the thermodynamic behaviour of&nbsp; hollow cylindrical concrete using the finite element method (FEM). By deploying ANSYS®, the element mesh was created, and the&nbsp; temperature distribution inside the hollow cylinder was calculated. The effect of the hollowness of the concrete on its heat absorption is&nbsp; determined. The findings demonstrate that the temperature profiles changed radially throughout the concrete thickness. Moreover, it&nbsp; was discovered that the temperature distribution was impacted by the airflow into the cylinder. The numerical experiment in this study&nbsp; was essential in providing a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of the concrete, particularly when exposed to higher heating&nbsp; rates. This study contributes to the knowledge of the performance and stability of concrete materials. It also demonstrates that the&nbsp; hollowness of the concrete enhances its heat-shielding performance. Furthermore, the inflow of air into the cylinder affects the&nbsp; temperature distribution, with a higher influx of air resulting in lower temperatures. These findings can be utilised to develop appropriate&nbsp; measures to enhance the performance and durability of concrete structures.&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/njtd/article/view/265869 High Impedance Fault Detection and Localization Using Fully-Connected Convolutional Neural Network: A Deep Learning Approach 2024-02-26T17:23:08+00:00 I.E. Abasi-obot iniobongabasiobot@aksu.edu.ng A.B. Kunya iniobongabasiobot@aksu.edu.ng G.S. Shehu iniobongabasiobot@aksu.edu.ng Y. Jibril iniobongabasiobot@aksu.edu.ng <p>The detection and localization of high impedance faults (HIF) in power systems are challenging due to the low fault current magnitude,&nbsp; which often falls below the detection threshold of conventional devices. HIF events introduce harmonics into the network, posing risks to&nbsp; the safety of connected equipment, including the potential for igniting fire which endangers lives and properties. In this study, Emanuel's&nbsp; HIF model was used to generate HIF signatures resembling real HIF events. Model parameters were adjusted to mimic&nbsp; various contact surface impedances. Two datasets were created: 'no-fault' data, simulating the network without HIF, and 'fault' data,&nbsp; incorporating HIF waveforms by simulating single and multiple lines with the HIF model. The faulted line was divided into five segments along the 33 kV line to capture fault signatures at different locations. The generated data, including current waveforms and magnitudes,&nbsp; were processed and divided into an 80:20 ratio for training, validation, and testing using a deep fully connected Convolutional Neural&nbsp; Network for HIF detection and location. The results showed an impressive accuracy rate of 99.44% and 99.78% for detection and location&nbsp; respectively, representing a significant advancement in HIF detection and location, and offering practical applications for enhancing&nbsp; power line safety.&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024