Nigerian Journal of Technological Development <p>The Nigerian Journal of Technological Development is now a quarterly publication of the Faculty of Engineering &amp; Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. It publishes original high-quality articles focusing on all aspects of Engineering and Applied Sciences in March, June, September and December. Manuscripts are double-blind peer-reviewed and if found suitable, published according to the subject matter as a <strong>Research Paper, Review Paper or a Technical Note.</strong></p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Faculty of Engineering & Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria en-US Nigerian Journal of Technological Development 0189-9546 <p>In accordance with the Copyright Act of 1976, which became effective January 1, 1978, the following statement signed by each author must accompany the manuscript submitted: "I, the undersigned author, transfer all copyright ownership of the manuscript referenced above to the Nigerian Journal of Technological Development, in the event the work is published. I warrant that the article is original, does not infringe upon any copyright or other proprietary right of any third party, is not under consideration by another journal, and has not been published previously. I have reviewed and approve the submitted version of the manuscript and agree to its publication in the Nigerian Journal of Technological Development." A copyright transfer form may be downloaded from the NJTD Website ( Author(s) will be consulted, whenever possible, regarding republication of material. All authors must have access to the data presented and the authors and sponsor (if applicable) must agree to share original data with the editor if requested.</p> A Review of Some Agricultural Wastes in Nigeria for Sustainability in the Production of Structural Concrete <p>A review of agricultural wastes available in Nigeria that is suitable for use in concrete industry, in order to attain sustainability in structural concrete production and practice, is presented in this paper. The wastes reviewed are: Cassava Peel Ash (CPA), Empty Palm Oil Fruit Brunch Ash (EPO-FBA), Rice Husk Ash (RHA), and Saw Dust Ash (SDA). Others were Palm Kernel Shell Ash (PKSA), Groundnut Husk Ash (GHA), Corncob Ash (CA), and Egg Shell Powder (ESP). The study revealed that some agricultural wastes that have potential for use as supplementary cementing material (SCM) for cement in the production of structural concrete abounds in Nigeria. It was also revealed that the necessity of standardization of procedures for testing of such wastes so that structural performance index can be compared. In addition, there is also the need for the development of classification methods similar to that of fly ash, so that their use can be enhanced. Using these waste materials in concrete will lead to sustainability in concrete production, reduction in the use of natural non-renewable resources, innovativeness in the use of wastes, and the development of small-scale industries.</p> C. Fapohunda A. Kilani B. Adigo L. Ajayi B. Famodimu O. Oladipupo A. Jeje Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 76 87 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.1 PSO-Based Integral Sliding Mode Controller for Optimal Swing-Up and Stabilization of the Cart-Inverted Pendulum System <p>An integral sliding mode controller (ISMC) which employs particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to search for optimal values of the parameters of the integral sliding manifold as well as the gains of the controller is proposed in this work. We considered the swing-up and stabilization of the cart-inverted pendulum system which is assumed to be affected by uncertainties. First, we determined the swing-up and stabilization conditions of the control system by using the internal dynamics of the cart-inverted pendulum system and sliding mode dynamics. A PSO algorithm is then used to search for the optimal values of the ISMC design parameters that satisfy the stabilization condition with the aim of improving the transient performance of the control system. To mitigate the chattering phenomenon, a saturation function of the integral sliding variable was used in the discontinuous control law. Simulation results on swing-up and stabilization of the cart-inverted pendulum system revealed improvement in transient behaviour by reducing settling time (by 52.61%), overshoots (by 45.56%) and required track length for cart movement (by 68.34%).</p> T.J. Shima H.A. Bashir Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 88 97 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.2 Swelling Behaviour of Starch-g-Acrylic Acid Hydrogel and its Potential Application in Removal of Rhodamine B and Alkali Blue Dyes <p>Starch-g-acrylic acid hydrogel was prepared by free radical polymerization technique adopting potassium persulphate (KPS) as an initiator and N’N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a linking agent. The aim of the research is to inspect the potentials of starch-based hydrogel in remediating wastewater. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to find the formation of hydrogel while Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for the characterization of the hydrogel. The FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed hydrogel formation. The DSC results showed that the generated hydrogel is thermally stable, and the SEM depicts a good porous site for dye adsorption. Batch adsorption for Rhodamine B (RDB) and Alkali blue (AB) dyes under the variation of contact time was 105 minutes for both dyes with percentage removal of 89.80 and 60.32%, adsorbent dose was 0.4 and 0.8 g with percentage removal of 86.42 and 57.95%, concentration was 50 and 30 ppm with percentage removal of 67.01 and 77.18% and pH was 8 for both dyes with percentage removal of 77.43 and 79.13% as the optimum. The results indicates that acrylic acid monomer was efficiently grafted on the starch, and the adsorption method correlated with Freundlich isotherm equation. It was concluded that the starch-based hydrogel is an appropriate adsorbent and can be explored for industrial wastewater treatment.</p> S. Yahaya Z.I.S.G. Adiya S. S. Adamu H.B. Bature I.B. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 98 104 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.3 Surface Phonon Polariton Modes in Suspended Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitrides <p>Dispersion properties and characteristics of transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) surface phonon polaritons (SPhP) in suspended monolayer hexagonal boron nitrides (hBN) was studied extensively. The analytical results show that the hBN based TM (TE) phonon polaritons exist in restsrahlen bands when imaginary surface conductivity is positive. The effective mode index of TM phonon polaritons is much higher than that of TE phonon polaritons with respective values of ~3000 and ~1.0002 which makes TM SPhP more promising in the practical realization. In addition, the propagation length of TE SPhP is less lossy and surpass that of TM SPhP by factor of 104. This study compares these important properties and sheds more insight into their applications in optical communications, photonics and optoelectronics devices.</p> M.Y. Musa G.S. Shehu M.A. Husein M. Imran H.B. Murtala Y. Jibril Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 105 109 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.4 Perception Analysis of Silver Jubilee Grade-Separated Intersection in Kano Metropolis Using Context Sensitive Solutions <p>This study explores the users’ perception on operational performance of Silver Jubilee Grade Separated Intersection (SJGSI) in Kano Metropolis using Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS). The CSS seeks to provide a transportation facility that fits its setting, leading to the preservation and enhancement of scenic, aesthetic, environmental and community resources while maintaining safety, mobility and comfort. A structured questionnaire enquired the opinion of respondents, among others, on the optimal performance of SJGSI and its determinants. Three correlation analyses and two regression analyses were generated. The results showed that most of the correlating and regressing variables are weakly correlated by chance. The degree of familiarity correlated with number of motorists (users) has an R-value of 0.125; the optimal performance correlated with its cost worthiness has an R-value of 0.166. The general and Context Sensitive (CS) optimal performance model has an R-values of 0.415 and 0.374, respectively. Some of the weak correlations could be attributed to the facility not planned based on CSS approach. A CS facility could have received a higher optimal performance rating, approval rating and CS features’ rating with increased efficiency and effectiveness. Most respondents opined that a better facility would have been constructed if all relevant stakeholders were involved in the development processes.</p> A. Muhammad M. N. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 110 118 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.5 Optimisation of Patient Flow and Scheduling in an Outpatient Haemodialysis Clinic <p>The demand for renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the growing number of patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) in Nigeria is reported to be on the rise. However, dialysis clinics are few with limited facilities to meet the increasing demand leading to congestion, long waiting time and increased length of stay (LOS) in dialysis clinics. This paper presents an optimisation model for scheduling patient flow in an outpatient haemodialysis clinic. The objective is to minimize patient LOS using Genetic Algorithm (GA), implemented in Python programming language with Spyder Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The model was tested using data obtained from a haemodialysis clinic, in Lagos, Nigeria. The model generated optimum LOS values (193.01, 275.02 and 390.01) minutes compared to the mean LOS values at the haemodialysis clinic (235.50, 296.62 and 424.50) minutes for the 3-hour, 4-hour and 6-hour dialysis sessions. Furthermore, a simulation experiment of patient flow in a typical haemodialysis clinic was performed by gradual variations in patient arrival rates, λ. Simulation results at (λ=0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4) revealed mean LOS (minutes) as (312.85 ± 73.45, 348.18 ± 84.89, 342.18 ± 81.30, 305, 28 ± 63.67) respectively. The optimisation model was effective in reducing patient LOS.</p> S.C. Nwaneri J.O. Ezeagbor D.O.T. Orunsholu C.O. Anyaeche Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 119 128 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.6 A Model for Optimal Treatment of Cassava Wastewater Using Anaerobic Baffled Reactor <p>The major components of the effluents from cassava processing industries are cyanide and starch. However it is suspected that cyanide inhibits the treatment of cassava wastewater. The experimental data were successfully fitted to a polynomial model which was used to optimize the treatment processes at a laboratory scale. The Monod and Michealis-menten models for cassava wastewater treatment was successfully calibrated and validated in an ABR system. For Michealis-Menten model, the maximum substrate utilization rate is estimated in the range: 2866.88 to 1432.84 mgl<sup>-1</sup> and for Monod’s model, it is estimated in the range: 493 to 1242 mgl<sup>-1</sup>, which is more realistic, hence validating the empirical model as more accurate than the former, which is theoretical. The result revealed that the inhibitor constant decreased from 9.9989 to 1.6101mgl<sup>-1</sup> as the number of baffles increased from 3 to 10. To reach a maximum COD removal efficiency of 99%, it was found that the aspect ratio of 10, 20 baffles, cyanide inhibition constant of 30 mg/l and influent flow rate of 0.8 l/min, are the required optimum operating conditions of the anaerobic baffled reactors.</p> A.O. Ibeje E. Onukwugha Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 129 134 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.7 Influence of Heat Inputs on Weld Profiles and Mechanical Properties of Carbon and Stainless Steel <p>This study examines the effect of heat input on the weld bead profile, microstructure and mechanical properties of single V- joint welded carbon and stainless-steel plates. The as-received sample steel plates were sectioned into eight pieces; dimension 75 X 30 X 10 mm&nbsp; thicknesses. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of heat inputs 1250 and 2030 J/mm was used to produce full penetration bead on the plates. Although visual inspection indicated that some of the welds were macro defect free, austenitic stainless steel exhibited more weld distortions than the carbon steel and this was partially attributed to its lower carbon content and the width to depth aspect ratio of the weld profile aside the magnitude of the induced stress. For the carbon steel, as the heat input increased, the hardness value of both the heat affected zone and fusion zone increased. In contrast, for stainless steel, the hardness values were reasonably comparable within same weld region (HAZ or FZ) irrespective of heat input. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength of the stainless steel decreased as heat input increased while the ductility increased with an increase in heat input, in contrast to carbon steel, where both ductility and ultimate tensile strength generally decreased.</p> L.O. Osoba W.A. Ayoola Q.A. Adegbuji O.A. Ajibade Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 135 143 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.8 Performance Evaluation of Wavelet De-Noising Schemes for Suppression of Power Line Noise in Electrocardiogram Signals <p>Power line noise introduces distortions to recorded electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. These distortions compromise the integrity and negatively affect the interpretation of the ECG signals. Despite the fact that the amplifiers used in biomedical signal processing have high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR), ECG recordings are still often corrupted with residual Power Line Interference (PLI) noise. Further improvement in the hardware solutions do not have significant achievements in PLI noise suppression but rather introduce other adverse effects. Software approach is necessary to refine ECG data. Evaluation of PLI noise suppression in ECG signal in the wavelet domain is presented. The performance of the Hard Threshold Shrinkage Function (HTSF), the Soft Threshold Shrinkage Function (STSF), the Hyperbola Threshold Shrinkage Function (HYTSF), the Garrote Threshold Shrinkage Function (GTSF), and the Modified Garrote Threshold Shrinkage Function (MGTSF) for the suppression of PLI noise are evaluated and compared with the aid of an algorithm. The optimum tuning constant for the Modified Garrote Threshold Shrinkage Function (MGTSF) is found to be 1.18 for PLI noise. GTSF is found to have best performance closely followed by MGTSF in term of filtering Gain. HTSF recorded the lowest Gain. Filtering against PLI noise in the wavelet domain preserves the key features of the signal such as the QRS complex.</p> Y. K. Ahmed A.R. Zubair Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 144 151 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.9 Evolution of Electricity Metering Technologies in Nigeria <p>Advancement in technology has continuously driven the evolution of metering devices and infrastructure in the world and has resulted in more accurate and user-friendly devices equipped with customer interaction interfaces. The evolution of metering technology in Nigeria arose with the unbundling of the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) but have not progressed smoothly and successfully despite the implementation of various reforms and policies in the Nigerian electricity industry. The persisting problems in the electricity distribution system such as energy theft, vandalism, energy wastage, high line losses can be overcome by the deployment of appropriate metering infrastructure. In the second quarter of 2020, the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission revealed that the total registered customers and total metered customers are 10,516,090 and 4,234,759 respectively leaving a metering gap of 59.73%; after 124 years of commercial electricity availability in Nigeria. This paper discusses Nigeria's metering history and the challenges encountered in the transition of policies, technologies and government reforms. The paper also proposes the way forward to a successful transitioning into a smart distribution grid.</p> F.M. Dahunsi O.R. Olakunle A.O. Melodi Copyright (c) 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 18 2 152 165 10.4314/njtd.v18i2.10