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Design analysis of a microcontroller based Irrigation system

A.A. Okandeji
M.B. Olajide
A.A. Ponnle
D.S. Kuponiyi


This work considers the design analysis of a low-cost microcontroller-based irrigation controller capable of managing irrigation for a small area of land based on real-time values of soil moisture and temperature. The method employed is to continuously monitor the soil moisture level to decide whether irrigation is needed, and how much water is needed in the soil. In particular, the microcontroller based circuit device performs the action of irrigation management. Specifically, it does this by continuously monitoring the moisture content of the soil, and comparing the values with two set reference values; the upper-limit, and lower-limit moisture content values, and then induces the corresponding action required. When the soil moisture content goes below the lower-limit value set by the user, the system observes this and begins irrigation action. Results obtained show that this design is cost-effective, and guarantees efficient water supply and effective labor management. Also, irrigation test results show that the duration of spray largely depends on the soil texture, grass identity and moisture content. In particular, sprinkler irrigation method in loamy soil took longer than in sandy soil, while clay soil irrigation took the longest time.

Keywords: Automatic-Irrigation Controller, Irrigation, Microcontroller, Water-supply