Nigerian Journal of Technological Research <p>The <em>Nigerian Journal of Technological Research</em> is a pure scientific journal with a philosophy of attempting to provide information on problem solving technology to its immediate environs and the international community. The scope of the journal is in the core areas of: Pure and Applied Sciences; Engineering Sciences; Environmental Sciences; Agricultural Sciences; Information and communication Technology; Management and Entrepreneurship sciences.</p> Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria en-US Nigerian Journal of Technological Research 0795-5111 Copyright is owned by the Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State Nigeria Piper guineense: A potent ethnobotanical preservative against <i>Dermestes maculatus</i> in smoke-dried African catfish, <i>Clarias gariepinus</i> <p><em>Piper guineense</em> fruits were purchased, sun-dried (30±2<sup>o</sup>C) for 10 days and ground into fine powder. Fifteen (15) pieces of <em>Clarias gariepinu</em>s (300 ± 5.0 g) were procured and smoke-dried in the laboratory using a charcoal-powered smoking kiln at 65<sup>o</sup>C for 10 hours. Each smoke-dried fish sample was placed in a plastic container with perforated lids covered with muslin cloth and Piper guineense fruit meal was sprinkled at varying quantities (0.0 g, 2.5 g, 5.0 g, 7.5 g and 10.0 g). Ten (10) adults of <em>Dermestes maculatus</em> bred from highly infested smoke-dried fish samples were introduced into each container and covered air-tight for seven (7) days. Mortality of <em>D. maculatus</em> was significantly different (p = .05) in all treatments and increased with an increase in the quantity of <em>P. guineense</em> and number of days. Mortality ranged between 73.33 and 100 % in treated groups while none was recorded in the control. Chemical compositions in treatments showed an increase in crude protein, lipids and lower moisture content at higher inclusion levels. This study showed that<em> P. guineense</em> can prolong the shelf-life of smoke-dried <em>C. gariepinus</em> against <em>D. maculatus</em> while retaining its nutritional composition.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: <em>Dermestes maculatus</em>, Piper guineense, smoke-dried,<em> Clarias gariepinus</em></p> Omosowone Olajumoke Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 1 6 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.1 Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Evaluation of African Catfish, <i>Clarias gariepinus</i> Reared under Different Culture Enclosures <p>This study was carried out to determine the fatty acid composition and sensory quality of<em> Clarias gariepinus</em> from different culture enclosures (plastic, sandcrete tanks and earthen ponds), at the Teaching and Research Farm of Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The comparative work was carried out to find out if habitat could influence the nutrient composition of the fish. Standard procedures were used in the analysis of tissue nutrient. Sensory evaluation study revealed differences in taste and texture indices considered for <em>C. gariepinus</em> reared in plastic, sandcrete tanks and earthen ponds (p&lt;0.05). Fatty acid profiles of <em>C. gariepinus</em> were determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The percentage of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was higher (49.99%, 23.17%) in earthen pond cultured <em>C. gariepinus</em> than the plastic and sandcrete tanks. The study revealed that <em>C. gariepinus</em> raised in earthen pond possess fatty acid composition and sensory quality advantages over the plastic and sandcrete tanks.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Fatty acids, Sensory evaluation, Culture enclosures, <em>Clarias gariepinus</em></p> O.I Oluwalola O.A Fagbenro Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 7 11 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.2 Gender participation in fisheries for sustainable livelihood in the coastal region of Ondo State, Nigeria <p>This study examined gender participation in fisheries and sustainable livelihood in the coastal areas of Ondo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents and the study area. Data were collected from 100 fisher folks from Ilaje and Ese-Odo Local Government Areas (LGAs), using a well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Kruskal Wallis test (KWt) was used to determine the level of livelihood diversification among the fisher folks. The most prominent roles of men in the study area are fishing both offshore and inshore (66%), boat owners (61%), and gear preparation (56%). On the other hand, the participation of women in fisheries is mostly sorting of fish caught (81%), salting for processing (79%), washing of fish and fishing gears (69%), and smoking (66%). Women also dominate fish distribution and marketing activities which include transporting of fish from home to the market place, display and bargaining. The result of the Kruskal Wallis test (KWt) revealed that the main occupation of the different groups is fishing, where the married class was the most predominant group. For gender, fishing remains the most engaged main occupation with more male than female at 0.01 level of significance.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Sustainable Livelihood, Fisheries and Gender</p> Adeleke M. Lydia Fagbenro O. Adewale Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 12 17 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.3 Effects of Leafy Biomass of Some Agroforestry Tree Species on Light Fraction Organic Matter Content of Soil <p>A study on light fraction organic matter was carried out on soil where leafy biomass of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (ENCY), Treculia africana (TRAF), Anogeissus leiocarpus (ANLE), Gliricidia sepium (GLSE), Leuceana leucocephala (LELE) were used as mulch. Soil samples were collected in each plot at two auger points 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm and then homogenized for laboratory analysis. ANLE was observed to have significant higher values (6.37, and 6.52) on soil pH, and at day 28 on soil pH respectively. Light fraction organic carbon (LFC) also experienced significant higher value (3.48 g/kg) at day 28 in ANLE leafy biomass. However, LELE had the significant highest values (0.37 g/kg, and 1.44 g/kg) on light fraction nitrogen (LFN), and at day 42 on LFN respectively, while, microbial population count (MP) was highest in ENCY (183516667 cfu/g), and (726666667 cfu/g) at day 14 respectively. It is therefore concluded that the leafy biomass investigated had improving positive effects on light fraction organic matter.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Organic matter, Soil content, Light fraction, Leafy biomass, Tree species</p> Abiodun Olusegun Oladoye Noah Alabi Oyebamiji Smith-Sonubi Adedoyin Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 18 22 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.4 Crystallization of vaterite and aragonite on chitin whiskers <p>The need for the possibility of producing calcium carbonate crystals by the evaporation method within five minutes and the growth of different calcium carbonate polymorphs on chitin whiskers within the same time frame at room temperature necessitated these report. Chitin whiskers (CHWs) were used as insoluble substrates, while poly (acrylic) acid (PAA) is used as soluble additive. The crystals were grown in chitin whiskers, Poly (acrylic) acid and CHW/PAA composites. The volume fractions for aragonite, vaterite, and calcite are 0.10, 0.25, and 0.65, respectively, in the absence of chitin whiskers or Poly (acrylic) acid. Calcite and aragonite volume fractions decrease in favour of vaterite when PAA and or CHWs were added. SEM images in the absence of CHWs and PAA shows rhombohedral calcites that display steady and step like plane appearances with an average edge of between 1.3 and 1.4 μm. In the presence of only CHWs, the SEM images show a mixture of ellipsoidal and spherical shape vaterites. The spherical vaterites have smooth, rough, and some irregular surfaces. Rod-like aragonite polymorphs were seen when only PAA was used as the template. In the presence of both PAA and CHWs, the rhombohedral shape showed roughness with irregular faces.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Chitin whisker, Calcium carbonate, Calcium, vaterite aragonite, Polymorph, Mole fraction</p> Michael Ikpi Ofem Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 23 30 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.5 Optimizing Broadcast Spectrum through the Planning of Digital Television Network <p>The transition from analogue to digital television promises an enormous digital dividend that can translate to spectrum resource provision for other services. In this work, the size of the spectrum that can be released as dividend after digital switchover in some selected States of Nigeria is estimated. First, the present analogue television (ATV) network coverage is compared with predicted digital terrestrial television (DTTV) network coverage during a simulcast period, and after ATV switch-off. The predicted DTTV network is initially planned with a multi-frequency network (MFN) and analysis showed that DTTV had a 12.5% improvement in spectrum utilization compared to ATV while achieving a better coverage probability of 95.3%. This work predicted further spectrum savings with the use of a single-frequency network (SFN) design for DTTV network planning. The analysis done showed that 87.5% of the ATV spectrum could be saved for other services after the transition to DTTV using SFN.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Digital television, SFN, MFN, Spectrum, dividend</p> A.O Gbenga-Ilori O. I. Ladipo Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 31 40 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.6 Antibacterial Efficacy and Phytochemical Screening of <i>Ocimum gratissimum</i> Leaf Extracts against Some Selected Bacteria Isolated from Stool Samples of Diarrhea Patients <p>This study investigated the antibacterial activity of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> leaf extracts on antibiotic resistant bacteria from stool samples of diarrhea patient attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. <em>O. gratissimum</em> leaf extracted with acetone, methanol and hot water solvents were assayed for qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals. Bioactive extracts were partially purified using standard chromatographic techniques. The crude and purified acetone extract had inhibitory effect on <em>Escherichia coli</em> (13.00±0.58 and 26.67±0.33 mm) according to CLSI, 2014 standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of purified acetone extract were 12.5 and 25 mg/ml respectively. Saponin had the highest quantity (42.50±0.32 mg/ml) on acetone extract while tannin had the lowest (1.29±0.01 mg/ml). <em>O. gratissimum</em> leaf acetone extract could be promising candidate in the treatment of diarrhea infection which is a major concern in paediatric medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diarrhea, <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> L., Antibacterial</p> Oluwatoyosi Ezekiel Olawale Olubukola Olusola-Makinde Muftau Kolawole Oladunmoye Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 41 47 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.7 A rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic detection protocol for adulteration in some edible fats and oils food formulation <p>The problems of adulteration in the vegetable oil and fat have been the major draw backs in the food products formulation, in spite of the various adulteration detection methods in different applications that have been reported. However, the detection tools that can be fast and reliable for the routine analysis necessitated the current work. The two groups of three different samples: vegetable fat containing sample (Blue Band, Golden Penny, La Prairie Classic) and animal fat containing samples (Kell Salad Cream, Crosse &amp; Blackwell and Nola) was used for the purity check using the reversed phased - thin layer chromatographic (RPTLC) method of analysis were developed. The average Rf ratio of 0.95 and 0.92, found for the vegetable and animal fat groups were reported, respectively. The Rf = 0.03 difference between the two groups indicated the presence of sistosterol (plant sterol) and cholesterol (animal sterol), an improvement over color detection methods to screen oils and fats to ascertain purity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sistosterol, Cholesterol, Adulteration, Animal fat, Vegetable oil</p> Mustapha Aliru Olajide Adepoju Adenike Rashidat Fadipe Victor Olugbenga Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 48 51 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.8 Promoting made in Nigeria leather products: a case study of Nigeria leather products on E-commerce platform <p>This paper focused on assessing the viability of promoting made in Nigeria leather products on electronic commerce platforms using the leather products produced in Nigeria Institute of Leather Science and Technology, Zaria (NILEST) as a case study. The paper acknowledged the quality and competitive market value of NILEST leather products. Promoted leather products were purposively selected and arranged for a photographic session. Each of the leather works are photographed from different angles. The photographed product images were enhanced on the computer and uploaded for promotion into an existing e-commerce platform. The opinions of one hundred thirty (130) e-commerce shoppers were sampled through a closed questionnaire. The outcome showed that appealing display of leather works from all sides on an e-commerce platform gives shoppers a convincing grasp of the promoted products, and this can influence patronage of the leather works. It was recommended that the leather industry should explore the limitless capabilities offered by e-commerce to leverage an impressive market acceptance transcending geographical barriers. Also, makers of leather products must embrace best practices in their chain-value of production to churn out appealing leather works that attract patronage online.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nigerian Leather, Promotion, Merchandizing, Colour Ecommerce Platform</p> Afeez Babatunde Siyanbola Jerry Tangang Idris Idris Daniel Danjuma Copyright (c) 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 16 2 52 58 10.4314/njtr.v16i2.9