Benign breast lesions in an African population: A 25-year histopathological review of 1864 cases
Objective: The objective of this study was to delineate the prevalence and characterize the histologic pattern of benign breast diseases (BBDs) in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old (1985-2009) retrospective study of all patients presenting with BBD.
Results: During the 25-year-old study period, 1864 cases of BBD constituting 72.4% of all breast lesions were seen. The female to male ratio was 28.6:1. An increasing incidence of BBDs was observed. The overall mean age for BBD was 27.5 years, SD±11.3 with an age range of 9-84 years and a peak age occurrence in the third decade. The single most common lesion was fibroadenoma accounting for 43.1% of cases, followed by fibrocystic change (23.8%) with mean ages of 22.3 years and 30.2 years, respectively. Both lesions had a peak occurrence in the third decade. Other major lesions encountered were sclerosing adenosis (7.3%), atypical ductal hyperplasia (3.6%), and blunt duct adenosis (2.3%). Gynecomastia (2.1%) was the predominant lesion in males. Inflammatory lesions constituted 8.1% of cases while stromal and skin lesions accounted for 1.1% and 0.9% of cases respectively.
Conclusion: BBDs constituted 70% of breast lumps and were mostly fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change. BBDs occurred predominantly in young females with a peak in the third decade. Though premalignant lesions of atypical hyperplasia were less common, biopsy of all BBDs should be done to exclude these lesions and routine mammographic screening of at risk individuals instituted to increase their detection.
Key words: Benign breast disease, benign breast lesion in Africans, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change in an African population