Epidemiology of Anaemia Necesitating Bone Marrow Aspiration Cytology in Jos

  • OJ Egesie
  • DE Joseph
  • UG Egesie
  • OJ Ewuga

Abstract

Objective: The study aims at investigating, identifying and classifying the various causes of anaemia necessitating bone marrow aspiration cytology in our environment.
Methodology: A retrospective review of all bone marrow aspiration cytology reports of patients referred to Haematology and Blood Transfusion department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital between January 1st 2005 and December 31st 2008 on account of anaemia was carried out.
Results: The commonest cause of anaemia was acute leukaemia (n=45: 24.3%); followed by combined megaloblastic and iron deficiency anaemia (nutritional deficiency anaemia) (n=34: 18.4%); and bone marrow failure (Aplastic anaemia) (n=20: 10.8%). Bone marrow aspiration cytology alone failed to identify causes of anaemia in a few patients (n=6: 3.2%).
Conclusion: The study provides a valuable insight into the causes of anaemia in our environment. In contrast to the general opinion that iron deficiency is the commonest cause of anaemia, acute leukaemia was found to be the commonest cause of anaemia in this environment followed by deficiency of nutritional factors and bone marrow failure. Lack of laboratory facilities has hindered further investigation of causes of anaemia in this environment. More emphasis should be placed on identifying and managing the specific cause of anaemia rather than the
current broad based approach to management. Public enlightenment on the need for early presentation to hospital and thorough investigations is necessary as early diagnosis affects positively the overall outcome of haematological diseases.

Niger Med J. Vol. 50, No. 3, July – Sept., 2009: 61 – 63.

Key words: anaemia, bone marrow aspiration cytology, epidemiology.

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eISSN: 2229-774X
print ISSN: 0300-1652