Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected communities of southern Nigeria
Mammary gland density depends on relative proportion of fatty to glandular tissue which has racial variation and some variables are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer screening imaging modality. This is a community based Cross-sectional prospective study across the Southern part of Nigeria in 658 women using Consecutive sampling technique. Mammary gland sonographic scans were performed using Sonoace X1 Machine with 10 MHZ transducer. 658 women were recruited. Participants were between 13 and 83 years (mean age 39 years and median = 38 years). Modal age group was 33-43 years (29.8%).77.5% of the women were in the pre-menopausal age group. Majority of the women were either obese or overweight (58.3%). Forty-one (6.2%) women had a positive family history of breast cancer, of which majority were heterogeneous fibroglandular breast pattern (43.9%) in this high-risk group. 66.6% women breastfed. There is significant relationship between sonographic mammary gland density pattern, age, menopausal status, parity and breast feeding. (P < 0.001). Ultrasonography is capable of accurately determining mammary gland density pattern and its correlation with other variables and risk factor for breast cancer.
Keywords: Mammary gland, density pattern, Ultrasound, ACR-BIRADS