Nigerian Medical Practitioner <em>The Nigerian Medical Practitioner</em>, a monthly Journal publishes clinical and research articles in medicine and related fields which are of interest to a large proportion of medical and allied health practitioners. It also publishes miscellaneous articles-hospital administration, business practice, accounting, law-for health practitioners. Case reports and letters about published papers are welcome. SAME Ventures en-US Nigerian Medical Practitioner 0189-0964 Copyright belongs to the journal. Faecal Detection of SARS- CoV-2: Possible Weak link in the Fight against COVID-19 <p>COVID-19 is a systemic disease that often involves the respiratory system.&nbsp; The majority of patients manifest with mild disease, while others progress to viral pneumonitis and develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. Some patients present with gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. The speed and extent of transmission of COVID-19 in the ongoing pandemic has prompted ongoing research and review of the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 other than airborne or respiratory droplets. The viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to be greater and last longer than that in the respiratory system. Viable SARS-CoV-2 has also been detected in environmental samples taken from the surface of toilet bowl and sink in infection isolation rooms, providing further insight for the viral transmission through contaminated fomites. Demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in both&nbsp; stool and gastrointestinal mucosa&nbsp; of patients raises the possibility that it may also be an enteric virus. However additional research is needed to examine the potential extent of transmission via fecal-oral route. The persistence of positive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) fecal detection long after respiratory samples have turned negative among COVID-19 patients raises the possibility of fecal-oral transmission in addition to droplet transmission. SARS-CoV-2 virus isolated from stool could be infectious, therefore detection and shedding of viral RNA in stool has provided insight into additional route of transmission, and an opportunity to develop stool-based diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; faecal detection; Gastrointestinal tract</p> B.A Denue C.B Akawu Copyright (c) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 79 1-4 3 13 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 Infection [Sars-Cov-2 (Covid-19)]: A Review <p>The outbreak of the new coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 in China spread worldwide or globally developing into an emergency of primary international concern. SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to groups of severe respiratory disease similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Human-to-human transmission through droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces has been described, with incubation times of 2 to 14 days. Early diagnosis, quarantine, and supportive treatments are essential to cure patients. This paper reviews the literature on all accessible information about the epidemiology, currently applied laboratory diagnosis, as well as therapeutical management and vaccines to prevent, treat and control further outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 infection.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, Diagnosis, SARS-CoV-2, Therapeutic management, Vaccines</p> D.M Bolarin Copyright (c) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 79 1-4 14 26 A Preliminary Report on the Pattern of Plasma Homocysteine- Protein Ratio among Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria <p>In plasma, homocysteine (Hcy) is majorly bound to protein, and have been significantly associated with adverse obstetric outcomes such as placental abruption or placental infarction, unexplained recurrent fetal loss, and pre-eclampsia among others; including the possibility of predicting women at risk of these conditions.Estimated Hcy levels have been observed to vary significantly with age, sex, lifestyles, hereditary factors, and ethnicity among several other confounding factors. However, the evaluation of homocysteine-protein ratio (Hcy/Pro) may provide a more reliable biomarker by adjusting for variations in serum proteins. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of Hcy/Pro among pregnant Nigerian females and evaluate possible associations with some haematological variables (Haemoglobin-Hb; Mean cell volume-MCV; Mean cell haemoglobin concentration-MCHC; White blood cell count-WBC and Platelet count-PLT).This study was an observational, hospital based, Cross-Sectional study comprising 130 pregnant women (cases) and 130 non-pregnant women (controls). The participants were recruited from the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH).Structured questionnaires were applied to obtain demographic, medical, socio-economic, and nutritional histories. Plasma Hcy was evaluated using Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and Plasma protein was evaluated using a fully automated Beckman Synchron LX20 by Beckman Coulter, Inc., 250 S. Kraemer Blvd. Brea, CA 92821, USA. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS version 23. Reference range for Hcy/Pro for non-pregnant females was estimated to be 0.050 – 0.098µmol/g. Homocysteine-protein ratio was observed to decline progressively throughout pregnancy (F=36.565; p=0.0001). The mean Hcy/Pro of control group participants (0.074 ± 0.012 µmol/g) was significantly higher than the 0.057 ± 0.019 µmol/g reported for the study group (p=0.001). Homocysteine-protein ratio correlated negatively with gestational age (GA) of study group participants (r= - 0.364; p=0.003).The Hcy/Pro showed a progressive decline throughout pregnancy, compared to total plasma Hcy pattern, and may be a truer reflection of plasma homocysteine pattern in pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Homocysteine-protein ratio, homocysteine, pregnancy, proteins</p> V.O Osunkalu F.O Olowoselu A.A Ogbenna C.C Makwe K.N Ozumba R.A Quao Copyright (c) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 79 1-4 27 32 Perception and Misconceptions about Menstruation in Lagos, South-West, Nigeria <p>While menstruation may be perceived as a sign of femininity, fertility, youth, or purification of the body, it could also be linked with vulnerability and pollution; sometimes with attitudes of disgust and shame. These perceptions vary, and are affected by factors, which include but not limited to; culture, religion and societal beliefs. In this study we assessed for women's perception of menstruation, menstrual characteristics and misconceptions. It was a prospective cross-sectional household survey with multi-staged cluster sampling design in which 230 randomly selected; consenting women in September and October 2018 were assessed about their menstrual pattern and perception using a structured questionnaire. The mean age of the study population was 32.87 ± 10.8years. The mean age at menarche of the respondents was 14.34 ± 2.05 years. About 37% of the women reported a regular 28-day menstrual cycle length. Almost 40% of the women reported they enjoyed their period in every way, 7.3% felt embarrassment when they had to talk about menstruation or purchase menstrual products while 22.5%observe various restrictions during menstruation for religious reasons. The desire to completely stop menstrual flow was highest among women aged 35–44 years (11.1%) and divorced or widowed women (18.2%) but least desired by single women (6.8%). Therefore a significant proportion of women perceived menstruation to be a normal physiologic process and an index of fertility but still exhibit socio-cultural and religious based restrictions during menstruation.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Menstruation Perceptions, Misconceptions</p> A Gbadegesin A.M Olumodeji Y.A Oshodi O Makinde H Olalere O.I Akinola Copyright (c) 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 79 1-4 33 38