The Relationship Between Microalbuminuria, Cardiovascular Riskfactors and Disease Management in Type 2 Diabetes
Background :In patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria is an early clinical sign suggestive of vascular damage to the glomerulus. Microalbuminuria has also been currently reported as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and becomes relevant in the management of type 2 diabetes.
Objectives :This study is to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria, identify the risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes, and to asses the achievement of treatment goals for cardiovascular risk reduction in type 2 diabetics.
Subjects and Methods : Seventy- two subjects with microalbuminuria were recruited from three hundred consecutively screened type 2 diabetics attending the Diabetic Clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Clinical data were obtained by interviewing the participants. Anthropometric measurements were made and blood specimens were collected for analysis.
Results: The prevalence of microalbuminuria was twenty four percent (24%)intype 2 diabetes. Multiple logistic regression identified duration of diabetes (odds ratio 1.3(95% CI; 0.03 – 1.58), hypertension(odds ratio5.2 (95%CI; 1.24-18.62), Body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio 1.27 (95%CI; 1.0 - 1.6),waist / hip ratio (WHR) (odds ratio 1.9 (95% CI; 1.3 – 3.5), andHbA c (odds ratio 6.6 (95% CI; 1 1.02 – 27) as independent risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetics. Optimum blood pressure, glycemic and weight control were achieved in eighty five percent (85%), fifty eight percent (58%) and nineteen percent (19%) of the type 2 diabetes respectively.
Conclusion : This study showed that microalbuminuria is common among patients with type 2 diabetes. It also showed improvement in glycemic control and modifiable cardiovascular risk factor control when compared with previous studies.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Microalbuminuria, Hypertension, Glycated haemoglobin (HbA c).