Ocular Findings in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients in Lagos, Nigeria.
Background: There is paucity of studies on the prevalence and pattern of ocular complication in HIV patients in developing countries where 90% of all HIV sufferers live. Most studies were carried out in industrialized countries and are not representative of the spectrum of ocular complication of HIV and it's prevalence in developing countries.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of ocular disorders in adult (>15 years ) AIDS patients at PEPFAR clinic in Lagos, Nigeria.
Material and Methods: All consecutive adult Seropositive HIV/AIDS patients of PEPFAR Clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital between February 1st - March 15th 2008 were enrolled into the study Cross sectional and non randomized, convenient study was used. Biodata and medical history were recorded on interviewer administered questionnaire. Participants were examined according to standard protocol comprising visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment examination with slit lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundoscopy and fundus photograph where necessary. PCV, CD4+ count, viral load at diagnosis, stage of HIV disease were extracted from patients' records. Details of drug were regimen also recorded. Data analysis was performed with EPI-Info 6.04 version; Chi square and student t test used to describe statistical association.
Results: A total of 400 patients were studied. Male:female ratio was 1.7 and mean age was 40 years (S.D.+ 9.12). Ocular disorders seen in 78.5% of patients; HIV related ocular disorders occurred in 45 (11.3) patients. Conjunctival microvasculopathy 166 patients (41.5%), pingueculum in 114 (28.5%), pterygium in 76 (19.0%), refractive error in 93 (23.3%), cataract in 12 (3.0%), and 22 (5.5%) Glaucoma suspects. HIV retinopathy and allergic eye disease in one patient each (0.3%). Presumed Cytomegalovirus retinitis 7 (1.8%), 14 (3.5%) Toxoplasmosis, 8 (2.0%) HZO, and 15 (3.8%) Presumed Squamous cell carcinoma. Eighty six (21.5%) of the patients had no abnormality. 91.4% of eyes examined had visual acuity with best correction of > 6/18. CD4+ in 79.3% of the patients was >200cells/ul and <5% had counts<50cells with an overall mean of 406cell/ul. 375 (93.8%) patients were on Highly Active Antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 25 (6.2%) were not.
Conclusion: Study revealed low prevalence of HIV related ocular disorders. This could be due to few patients at low level of immunosuppresion where the infections occur.
Keywords: Aids, Ocular Manifestation, Prevalence