Drugs prescription pattern in dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria
Canine parvovirus enteritis affects predominantly puppies with a high prevalence rate in Nigeria and is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia and leucopenia. Treatment is non-specific; hence array of medications are usually prescribed to manage the condition symptomatically. Irrational drugs prescription has been reported to be one of the causes of therapeutic failures and adverse drug reactions in veterinary medicine. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the pattern of drugs prescription in dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some small animal clinics in Nigeria. The study was carried out in 10 states of Nigeria and Abuja. A retrospective study of drugs prescription pattern in dogs diagnosed with CPE, including polypharmacy, prescription rates, and dose regimen of gentamicin in 20 veterinary clinics were conducted from January, 2010 to December, 2014. Results showed that 554 (80.6%) of 687 patients were administered ≥4 drugs per encounter. Of the 2,482 drugs prescribed at the different clinics, antibiotics had the highest prescription rate of 42.3% (1,050). Gentamicin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic which accounted for 23.8% (250) prescription rate. However, 57.2% (143) of the patients were under-dosed (<6mg/kg). Also, non-essential prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal modulating drugs, including ranitidine were observed. This study has demonstrated that most drug prescriptions for dogs with parvovirus enteritis in Nigeria are inappropriate. This could have contributed to poor therapeutic outcomes common in parvovirus enteritis management. Consequently, Veterinarians should be rational in drugs prescription in order to optimize therapeutic efficacy and minimize adverse drug effects.
Keywords: Parvovirus enteritis, Prescription pattern, Gentamicin, Dog, Nigeria