Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in sheep in Maigana and Birnin Gwari agro-ecological zones of Kaduna State, Nigeria
Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting public health and animal production. A cross-sectional study using simple random sampling was conducted between May and December, 2016 in Maigana and Birnin Gwari Agro-ecological zones of Kaduna State to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in sheep. In addition the risk factors associated with sero-positivity in sheep were also assessed. A total of 400 sera samples comprised of 141 from males and 259 from females sheep were collected and screened for the presence of Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Sera analysis revealed that, 16.5% and 10.8% were seropositive to Brucella infection by RBPT and cELISA, respectively. There was statistically significant association between sex of the sheep and seropositivity to Brucella infection using RBPT (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, no statistically significant association between the age and breed of sheep and seropositivity to Brucella infection using RBPT and cELISA, respectively (P > 0.05). This study shows evidence of Brucella infection with high prevalence mainly among female sheep and the disease can be considered as a potential risk for both susceptible animals and humans in the study area. Therefore, creating awareness about brucellosis, interdisciplinary partnership and complementary effort between veterinary and public health professionals is very important to control the transmission of brucellosis.
Keywords: Brucellosis, Kaduna State, Sheep, Sero-prevalence