Immunomodulatory Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Aqueous Extract on the Burrowing Crab, Cardiosoma guanhumi (Latreille, 1828)
Moringa oleifera has impressive range of nutritional and medicinal values which when consumed have influence on hematological profile which is applied as an index of physiological condition of various organisms and thus provide information about the health status of local populations. The study aimed to determine the effects of M. oleifera aqueous leaves extract on the hematology, serum biochemical profile and antioxidant enzyme activities of the burrowing crab, Cardiosoma guanhumi. Thirty juveniles of C. guanhumi (Average weight 43.20±0.05 g) were tested, where six crabs were randomly selected and distributed per each tank (1 x 1x 0.6m3) of 1litre of water. Different diets containing M. oleifera aqueous extract at inclusion levels of 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, 1.5 ml, 2.0 ml and control were used to feed the crabs. Total Haemocyte Count ranged between 2733.33±0.90 mL and 6350.00±0.60 mL; there were significant differences among the treatment groups (p < 0.05). Haemocyte sub-population variables showed that crabs fed the control and 2.0ml M. oleifera kg-1 diet had increased in the granulocyte and monocyte populations but a decrease in the agranulocytes. The results of the serum enzymes showed an increase as the level of M. oleifera aqueous extract increases in the diet. Highest superoxide dismutase (75.43 ±21.25 min/mg pro) and catalase activities (2.96±0.18 min/mg pro), malondialdehyde (12.05±2.09 nmol/L) and glutathione concentrations (0.19 ±0.02 μmol/L) were recorded in crabs fed diet T4 (2.0ml M. oleifera kg-1), while the lowest were obtained in crabs fed control diet. The present study showed that the inclusion of M. oleifera aqueous extract up to 1.0ml kg-1 will have immunomodulatory performance on Cardiosoma guanhumi without any deleterious effect on the crab’s health status.
Keywords: Hemato-Biochemicals, Land Crab, Lagos Lagoon, Plant Extract, Nigeria