Epizootiological and microbiological methodologies for monitoring anti-microbial resistance among enterobactericeae of animal origin: a review

  • I. C. Okoli
  • P.T.E. Ozoh
  • A.B.I. Udedibie


The emergence of anti-microbial resistant strains in the treatment of bacterial infections has demanded some critical revaluation of the continued use of these agents in agriculture. Current information on the spread of pathogenic and commensal bacteria of animal origin and their resistance genes highlight the existence of interactions between micro-ecological systems in different animal hosts and the environment. Protocols for appropriate epizootiological investigations of anti-microbial resistance in farming environments should therefore incorporate elements of such ecologic interactions. For example, to evaluate the risks of continued use of anti-microbials in animals and their impact on human health, veterinary monitoring of bacterial susceptibility should assume a broad structure that includes a large number of animal species, detection of resistance levels in bacteria resident in animals and animal-derived foods, and also incorporate deferent bacterial species especially veterinary pathogens, zoonotic bacteria and commensals. Similarly, application of molecular typing techniques alongside conventional phenotypic methods is preferred especially when testing for newly emerging as well as established resistance patterns.
KEY WORDS: Anti-microbial resistance, Enterobacteriaceae, Epizootiology, Molecular typing, Animal

(Nigerian Veterinary Journal: 2002 23(2): 23-39)

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eISSN: 0331-3026