Maxillofacial and mandibular phenotypes in the skulls of red Sokoto and Sahel goats in Nigeria: The role of dental abnormalities

  • JO Olopade
  • MO Samuel
  • RE Antia
  • SK Onwuka
Keywords: Maxillofacial, Mandibular, Phenotypes, Goats, Dental Abnormalities


This work examined phenotypic expressions in the anatomy of the mandible and maxillofacial region of the Red Sokoto and Sahel goats in Nigeria. The infraorbital foramen was placed above premolar two (PM2) in Red Sokoto but above premolar one (PM1) in Sahel. The Red Sokoto displayed interdigital septa (ruggae) which entered into mediolateral depressions of the opposing mandible but this was less prominent in the Sahel. Dental abnormalities were more pronounced in the Red Sokoto on the maxilla and mandibular rows. The facial and mandibular tuberosities were more prominent in the Red Sokoto goat and found to be more conspicuous in this breed with dental abnormalities. There was no significant difference between Calcium and Phosphorus in the craniofacial bones of goats with dental abnormalities compared to those without dental abnormalities in both breeds and in conclusion we thus suggest that the harsh environmental conditions of arid North West may be a greater predisposing factor for the negative dental profile of the Red Sokoto breed.

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eISSN: 0331-3026