Chloramphenicol Use and Prevalence of its Residues in Broiler Chickens and Eggs in Ibadan, Nigeria
Antibiotic use in poultry could result in deposition of residues in edible products of which chloramphenicol is of particular concern because its toxicity and non-dose dependent fatal aplastic anemia in humans. This study assessed the use of antibiotic in poultry production, determined the prevalence and concentration of chloramphenicol residues in meat and eggs from poultry farms and commercial outlets in Ibadan. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 75 poultry farmers to assess the use of antibiotics in poultry and the presence of chloramphenicol in chicken eggs and meat randomly obtained from broiler farms and commercial egg outlets were screened for chloramphenicol residues using ELISA technique.
The results showed that 50% of the farmers reported administering chloramphenicol to their flocks. Also the survey of five veterinary drugs retail outlets revealed four brands of antibiotics sold for poultry use containing chloramphenicol as an active ingredient. The residue was detected in 51.1% of poultry organs and 25.4% of eggs with mean concentration ranged from 61.8 to 74.6 ng kg-1 in meat and 283.5 to 298.9 ng kg-1 in eggs. The prevalence of chloramphenicol residue was significantly higher in organs than in eggs, but the concentrations were significantly higher in eggs than in meat (p<0.05).
This study documented widespread sales and use of chloramphenicol in poultry in Ibadan with high concentrations of chloramphenicol residues posing public health risks and international trade barrier. We recommend prudent antibiotic use in food animals, alternative treatment regimens and enforcement of appropriate regulatory efforts to prohibit the use of chloramphenicol in food animals.Keywords: Antibiotics, Chloramphenicol Residues, Poultry