Nigerian Veterinary Journal <p>The <em>Nigerian Veterinary Journal</em> (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock economy worldwide.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal can be found here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association en-US Nigerian Veterinary Journal 0331-3026 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Antioxidant Activities and Estimation of Phenol and Flavonoid Contents in The Extracts Of <i>Trema Orientalis</i> Linn Blume <p>Phytochemical analysis is important in the evaluation of bioactive compounds from plants. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathology of many diseases such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, cataract, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory conditions, and stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of <em>Trema orientalis.</em> Antioxidant activity was estimated spectrophotometrically using 2,2– diphenyl–1–picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid contents of the Trema orientalis extracts were determined using standard methods. Independent<br>Sample T–test was used for Data analyses. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, steroids, cardiac&nbsp; glycosides, alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Total phenolic contents were found to be 260.96±2.31 mg GAE/g and 134.08±0.56 mg GAE/g in the ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Similarly, total flavonoid contents were between 32.71±0.89 and 4.70±0.23 mg GAE/g. The radical scavenging effect was observed in ethanol extract with IC<sub>50</sub> = 9.27 µg/mL. The&nbsp; abundance of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of the <em>T. orientalis</em> could confirm their good therapeutic potentials in<br>ethnobotany.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Trema orientalis</em>, Phenols, Flavonoids, Antioxidant activities </p> A. Saleh S.M. Zainal-Ariffin S.F. Yahaya A.G. Khaleel Copyright (c) 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 41 2 73 84 Endocrine, Reproductive, Neurophysiologic and Extraneous Activities of Estrogen in Vertebrates <p>Estrogens are reproductive hormones synthesized in the gonads of both male and female vertebrates. This review is geared towards uncovering some endocrine, reproductive, neurophysiologic and extraneous activities of estrogen in vertebrates. The three most&nbsp; common naturally occurring estrogens are: Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). In primates, estradiol is the most potent and predominant estrogen during reproductive years. Estrogens are synthesized primarily in the female ovaries and in small quantities in the male testes and the adrenal glands, brain, and fat of both sexes. Estrogens are steroid hormones. The adipose tissues are considered to be the major source of circulating estrogen after the gonads in both men and women. In essence, the presence of aromatase expression in a local tissue confirms extra-gonadal estrogen synthesis. In reproduction, estrogen promote secondary sexual characteristics in females and regulates maturation of sperm (spermiogenesis) in males. Neurophysiologically, estrogen promote glutamate activity in the central nervous system, facilitates dopaminergic neurotransmission but blocks gammaaminobutyric acid. Extraneously, estrogen decrease serum cholesterol and osteoporosis especially in menopausal females. However, acute estrogen drop<br>postpartum leads to depressed mood experienced by most post parturient females. In this review, it is observed that, while serum estrogen decreases with age in females, in male it increases with age due to the extraneous synthesis of estrogen especially in the adipose tissue.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Estrogen, Female, Aromatase, Male, adipose tissue </p> O.N. Nwankudu Copyright (c) 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 41 2 85 107 Psoroptic Mange in a Weaner Pig <p>Mange is a contagious skin disease affecting various groups of animals. Psoroptic mange is a severe skin condition of farm animals; it is highly contagious and is responsible for huge economic losses in many farm animals. Infestation with Psoroptes has been reported all over the world in various farm animals, but none has ever been reported in swine. A male weaner large white breed pig of age 3 months weighing 10kg was presented with skin lesions and areas of alopecia during a routine farm visit by the handlers. The alopecia was found around the thorax, abdomen and ear regions with severe pruritus, emaciation, wrinkling and thickening of the skin with heavy crust formation on abdomen and the ears, along with curling of the tongue with attending vocal loss noticed on close&nbsp; observations. A tentative diagnosis of mange was made with the following differential diagnosis: Allergic dermatitis, Bacterial dermatitis, Fly bite dermatitis, Hypovitaminosis. Further confirmatory diagnosis was done by collection of deep skin scrapping from which Psoroptes mites were demonstrated and a case of psoroptic mange diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of Psoroptic mange in pigs. The affected animal was treated using Ivermectin (1%) and Long acting Oxytetracycline (20%). This case may be the first case in which psoroptic mange was reported in pigs with effective ivermectin control. More work should be done on the prevalence and possible molecular characterization of Psoroptic mites on pigs across the globe to ascertain if there are other strains that can affect pigs.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Psoroptes mite, Mange, Ivermectin, and Pigs </p> F.A. Akande I.K. Oyewusi A.O. Idowu M.A.A. Ajakaiye Copyright (c) 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 41 2 108 116 Chromatographic Analysis and In Vitro Cytotoxic Properties of Different Root Extracts of <I>Hermannia geniculata</I> Eckl. & Zeyh on Vero, HepG2 And RAW 264.7 Macrophage <p><em>Hermannia geniculata</em> is widely used in the management of several illnesses in South African traditional medicine. Chromatographic analysis, in vitro cytotoxicity, and biological activities of secondary metabolites present in Hermannia geniculata root extracts were investigated. Vero monkey kidney cells, human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines were used to determine the cytotoxicity of the extracts using MTT assay. The capabilities of the plant extracts to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase enzyme activities, the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by the ethanol extract was evaluated. Results showed selective toxicity of the extracts with LC<sub>50</sub> values of Vero cells ranging from (0.40-0.57 mg/mL) while the LC<sub>50</sub> value of HepG2 cells varies between (0.016-0.136 mg/mL). The selectivity indexes (SI) were recorded (31.87, 18.87, 33.33, and 13.52) for ethanol, hydro-ethanol, decoction, and aqueous extracts respectively. The ethanol extract inhibited NO production in a concentration-dependent manner showing a decrease of 82% at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. Its LC<sub>50</sub> value (3.64&nbsp; mg/mL) is lower and significantly different (p&lt;0.05) compared to quercetin (standard) with an LC<sub>50</sub> (8.28 mg/mL). Similarly, the ethanol extract is a potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme with the lowest IC<sub>50</sub> value of 0.14 mg/mL which is significantly different (p&lt;0.05) from other extracts and indomethacin (standard). The GC-MS chromatograms of the ethanol extract revealed five principal compounds that have been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal properties. This result indicated that Hermannia&nbsp; geniculata root extracts is not toxic to Vero and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines and toxic to HepG2 cell lines used in this experiment, it may also possesses antiiflammatory and antiploriferative activities which could be exploited in the development of new, safer, and efficacious drugs. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cytotoxicity; Nitric oxide; 5-lipoxygenase; Hermannia geniculata, Antioxidant GCMS.</p> L.A. Adeniran A.O.T. Ashafa Copyright (c) 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 41 2 117 124 Patency and Clinico-Haematological Pathologies Sequel to <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i> and <i>Trypanosoma evansi</i> Induced Infections in Yankasa Sheep I <p><em>Trypanosomosis</em> remains one of the most deadly protozoan diseases that pose a significant impact on livestock health in the tropics. Sixteen (16) rams aged between 24 to 30 months and weighed between 22-25kg were acclimatized under standard animal housing&nbsp; conditions. Twelve (12) of the sheep deemed fit and healthy were randomly divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV) of three sheep each. Each sheep in groups I and II was inoculated intravenously with 2 mL containing 2 X 10<sup>6</sup> trypomastigote forms of T<em>rypanosoma brucei</em> and<em> Trypanosoma evansi,</em> respectively. While group III, each sheep received 2 mL containing 2 X 10<sup>6</sup> mixed inoculums of <em>T. brucei</em> and <em>T. evansi</em> (50% each by volume of the infective inoculums). Sheep in group IV served as the non-infected control. Post-infection animals were monitored for 14 weeks for parasitaemia, clinical signs, and haematological pathologies. The patent infection became evident in groups I, II, and III between 5-21 days post-infection with average patency of 7, 20, and 8.5 days respectively. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia with a significant decrease (p&lt; 0.001) in mean weekly packed cell volume (PCV),&nbsp; haemoglobin concentration (Hb), live weight gain, plasma protein, which significantly decreased (p&lt; 0.001) in all the infected groups. Pearson’s correlation (r) indicates a strong positive correlation (r= 0.991) between parasitaemia and pyrexia, and principal component analysis (PCA) biplot increased the predictabilities of these two indices as the major precursors in the progression of the trypanosomes pathogenesis in sheep.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Trypanosomosis; Patency; Clinico-haematological pathologies; <em>Trypanosoma brucei; Trypanosoma evansi</em>; Yankasa sheep </p> Y.A. Wada O.O. Okubanjo P.I. Rekwot B. Mohammed S.J. Oniye Copyright (c) 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 41 2 125 143 Clinicopathological and Microscopic Features of <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i> and <i>Trypanosoma evansi</i> Induced Infections in Sheep II <p>The present study elucidates further on clinical, gross, and microscopic pathologies induced by single or mixed infections with&nbsp; Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei in sheep. Briefly, the experimental animals were divided into four groups of three&nbsp; animals each. Animals in each group were either infected with <em>T. brucei, T. evansi,</em> mixed (<em>T. brucei </em>and <em>T. evansi</em>), or noninfected. Animals were observed for clinical, gross, and microscopic pathologies for 98 days (14 weeks). The clinical pathologies observed included loss of body condition, pale ocular mucus membrane, rough hair coat, scrotal oedema, scrotal degeneration, emaciation, and death. At necropsy, macroscopic or gross lesions included very pale and anaemic carcass composition, congested and pneumonic lungs with severe haemorrhages, serous atrophy of intestinal and body fats, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. Microscopic lesions observed in the testes, spleen, liver, lungs, lymphoid, heart, and brain tissues of infected sheep were varied and included swollen kidney with renal tubular degeneration, the proliferation of lymphocytes at the germinal centers of the spleen, degeneration of the bronchioles, severe testicular degeneration with a reduction in the number of spermatogenic cell layers,&nbsp; degenerated Leydig and Sertoli cells with loss of sperm reserves in the seminiferous lumen, congested liver with sinusoidal spaces and the proliferation of monocytes and lymphocytes. The results indicate that trypanosomosis due to experimental <em>T. brucei, T. evansi,</em> or mixed infections may be an important cause of various grades of tissue and organ pathologies in sheep in trypanosome-endemic areas.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Trypanosomosis</em>; Clinico-pathological and microscopic features; <em>Trypanosoma brucei; Trypanosoma evansi;</em> Mixed&nbsp; infections; Sheep </p> Y.A. Wada P.I. Rekwot O.O. Okubanjo B. Mohammed S.J. Oniye Copyright (c) 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 41 2 144 160 Sero-Detection of Avian Influenza A/H7 in Nigerian Live-Bird Markets in Plateau State <p>Avian influenza has been reported in domestic birds in Nigeria since 2006 and subtype H5 of the Gs/Gg lineage has continued to be detected up till date. It has been suggested that waterfowls and local birds sold in live-bird markets may be natural reservoir and source of reinfection of different subtype of avian influenza in poultry farms. This study aims at serodetection of avian influenza virus in waterfowls and local birds at live-bird markets in Plateau State, Nigeria. A total of three hundred and nine (309) blood samples were&nbsp; collected over a period of three months and two hundred and ninety-two (292) sera were analysed by c-ELISA for influenza A nucleoprotein using standard protocols. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) specific for subtypes H5, H9, and H7 was also carried out using standard protocols on ELISA positive samples. The results showed seroprevalence of 5.14% (n=15) for influenza A. Serotype H7 was thereafter detected by HI in 5 of the 15 influenza A positive samples. The H7 positive sera also reacted with H7N3, H7N4, H7N1 and H7N7 virus strains with HI titre ranging between 1:32 to 1:512. This investigation for the first time showed serological evidence of influenza A subtype H7 in local birds and waterfowls sold at the live bird market in Nigeria. Further virological surveillance to isolate the virus is important in order to better understand influenza virus epidemiology in Nigeria and the potential risk that other subtypes<br>of influenza poses to poultry production and public health.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Influenza A, subtype H7, serological detection, live bird market, Nigeria. </p> C.N. Chinyere E.C. Okwor C.A. Meseko W.S. Ezema N.D. Choji D.I. Amos L.K. Sulaiman I. Shittu C. Nwosuh Copyright (c) 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 41 2 161 174 Effects of N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of <i>Khaya senegalensis, Guiera senegalensis</i> and <i>Tamarindus Indica</i> Leaves Extracts on Eimeria tenella Oocyst Sporulation <i>in Vitro</i> <p>The in vitro anti coccidial activities of n-butanol and aqueous fractions of <em>Khaya senegalensis, Gueira senegalensis</em> and<em> Tamarindus indica</em> leaves extracts on Eimeria tenella parasite was studied by observing the effects of the plant extracts on the sporulation of the Eimeria tenella oocysts. Drug resistance and consumer demanding decrease in the use of drugs in animals have generated interest in alternative strategies to control the avian disease one of which is herbal intervention studies. Fresh faecal samples were collected from infected birds and their oocysts load determined. Dilutions of the extracts (100mg, 250mg, 400mg, 550mg, 700mg and 850mg per ml) in distilled water were prepared and placed in separate well labelled petri dishes. 100 oocysts were added to each petri dish and the set up was left at ambient temperature on the laboratory table and monitored twice daily (9.00am and 3.00pm) to observe the sporulation of the oocysts over a 72 hours period. Laboratory sporulation medium (2.5% Potassium dichromate) and Amprolium were used for comparison. The phytochemical result implied that the active ingredients were present mainly in the n-butanol and crude extract&nbsp; fractions with the nbutanol fraction of the <em>Khaya senegalensis</em> extract containing phenols and flavonoids which have antioxidant effects. The in vitro study showed that the n-butanol fraction of <em>K senegalensis</em> (100mg/ml) and the aqueous fraction of <em>Tamarindus indica</em> (100mg/ml) extracts had similar effects to those obtained using Amprolium which was considered as the standard by inhibiting the sporulation of <em>Eimeria tenella</em> oocysts. It is therefore recommended that more work needs to be done to determine the anti&nbsp; coccidial activities of these extracts in vivo.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: <em>Eimeria tenella</em>, sporulation, in vitro, extracts </p> M.O. Otu I.A. Lawal B.D. George M.S. Abubakar I.A. Adeyinka F.O. Abeke A.A. Sekoni B.I. Nwagu E.O. Adejoh-Ubani A.K. Oluntunmogun A.U. Umar I. Abdullahi H.M. Haruna Copyright (c) 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 41 2 175 191