Nigerian Veterinary Journal <p>The <em>Nigerian Veterinary Journal</em> (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock economy worldwide.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal can be found here: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association en-US Nigerian Veterinary Journal 0331-3026 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Chronic Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Disrupted the Functional Integrity of the Bone Marrow of Splenectomized Wistar Rats <p>Splenectomy is a surgical intervention recommended for a variety of diseases and neoplastic conditions. Understanding the vulnerabilities of splenectomized individuals to various forms of toxicities will inform the lifestyle changes and management of such&nbsp; individuals. In this study, bone marrow integrity following chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) toxicity in splenectomized female Wistar&nbsp; rats was investigated. Fifteen (15) female Wistar rats, with a mean body weight of 172.36 ± 2.48g and randomly allocated into three&nbsp; groups of five rats each were used. Group I were untreated and served as the control. Group II were unsplenectomized (intact) and CCl<sub>4</sub>&nbsp; treated. Group III were splenectomized and CCl<sub>4</sub> treated. For the treatment, CCl<sub>4</sub> was diluted in paraffin oil to a concentration of 10% CCl<sub>4</sub>&nbsp; and administered at the dose of 3 ml/kg each, intraperitoneally. Bone marrow activities for all groups were evaluated using&nbsp; haematopoietic indices relating to proliferation and maturation of myeloid, erythroid and lymphoid cell lines. The result showed that while chronic CCl<sub>4</sub> toxicity in rats moderately depressed the maturation of myeloid and erythroid cell lines without severely affecting the&nbsp; overall haematopoietic capabilities of the marrow, these changes were exacerbated in the bone marrow of splenectomized rats.&nbsp;</p> Ihemdirim Chukwuma Unamba-Oparah Chioma Unamba-Oparah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 44 3 1 8 10.4314/nvj.v44i3.1 Effects Of Exogenous GnRH Stimulation On Testicular Spermatogenesis And Characteristics Of The West African Dwarf Buck <p>The testis in male domestic animals has two primary functions: spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, coordinated by testicular cells&nbsp; under GnRH control. This study examined the features of the testes of the bucks of the West African dwarf breed to assess the effects of&nbsp; additional GnRH-stimulated levels of FSH, LH, T, and estradiol from 3 to 12 months of age. Twelve 3-month-old bucks were divided in a&nbsp; random manner into GnRH-treated (n = 6) and control (n = 6) groups. Monthly, bucks were weighed, their testicular diameter measured,&nbsp; and two blood samples taken (n = 12) at a 1-hour interval to establish peripheral concentrations. The GnRH-treated group received 0.5μg/ kg of GnRH intramuscularly the next day, while the control group received saline subcutaneously. Blood samples were taken 1 and 2&nbsp; hours later to establish GnRH-stimulated levels. At 12 months, bucks were castrated, and testes were weighed and prepared for histological analysis. Testes diameters showed no significant difference (p&lt;0.05): 24.52±0.43 mm (GnRHtreated group) and 25.92±0.45&nbsp; mm (control group). However, yearling testicular mass differed significantly (p&lt;0.05): 41.50±5.80g (GnRH-treated group) and 38.80±7.58g&nbsp; (control group). The number and make-up of seminiferous tubular cells (cells of Sertoli, germ cells in the form of spermatogonia,&nbsp; developing into spermatocytes, further maturing into spermatids, and ultimately forming spermatozoa) indicated increased spermatogenesis in the GnRH-treated group. It is concluded that GnRH super-stimulation increased spermatozoa production in the West&nbsp; African dwarf buck.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> I.S. Oruene H.M. Mutembei A.N. Kipyegon P.I. Rekwot Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 44 3 9 21 10.4314/nvj.v44i3.2 Evaluation Of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Maternally Derived Antibody Decay Rate In Day Old Broilers From Different Hatcheries In Nigeria <p>Infectious Bursal disease (IBD) is an immunosuppressive disease of young chicks, which is responsible for major economic losses in the&nbsp; poultry industry worldwide, particularly for the last decades. This study utilized a cross-sectional approach to evaluate Infectious bursal&nbsp; disease virus (IBDV) maternally derived antibody decay rate in day old chicks (D.O.C) obtained from different hatcheries in Nigeria. Of the&nbsp; 450 serum samples collected through random selection with replacement method, (i.e 90 samples from the 5 hatcheries designated&nbsp; as farms A – E), it was observed that farm A at day 1 had mean Elisa titre of (4213 ± 366.66), farm B (2178.225 ± 292.477), farm C (1629.699&nbsp; ± 229.2197), farm D (3452.609 ± 403.64.6469) and farm E (1651.789 ± 201.6811), these values were far above the protective (positive) level&nbsp; of 875, recommended by IDvet manual with (S/P ratios of 0.350). This level was maintained, although, with minimal decays, up to day 7&nbsp; for farms A, D and E but farm B and C did not exceed day 6 and day 5 respectively. Only farm D presented protective (positive) value that&nbsp; lasted to day 13. The best fit for this decay rate was calculated to be Y = -2263In(x) + 3714 (week) with R<sup>2</sup> = (0.903). From these studies we&nbsp; could deduce that these farms were truly vaccinated or immunized as expected and they presented different antibody titres with variable&nbsp; decay rates. It would have been a good idea to recommend that same vaccination schedule should not be applied indiscriminately to&nbsp; broilers from these farms like other researchers have, but this would rather be to the detriment of many farmers who may not be&nbsp; privileged to access the detailed information on which schedule is meant for which farm .We therefor recommend that broilers from&nbsp; these hatcheries be vaccinated between day 7 to day 10 post hatch and a booster dose (if necessary) should be administered a week&nbsp; after, with an intermediate plus strain vaccine type that has the capacity to penetrate through the MDA and induce humoral-immunity-in- thechicks.&nbsp;</p> Moses Audu J.O. Ibu C.A. Akwuobu E.O. Ngbede Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 44 3 22 36 10.4314/nvj.v44i3.3 Molecular And Serological Detection Of Newcastle Disease Virus In Live-Bird Markets, Jos, Plateau State In Nigeria <p>Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly infectious viral disease of birds caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and it has been reported&nbsp; in domestic birds in Nigeria. Waterfowls and village poultry in live bird markets (LBM) acts as reservoirs, potentially reintroducing the&nbsp; virus to commercial poultry. This study aims at molecular and serological detection of NDV at live bird markets in Plateau State, Nigeria. A&nbsp; cross sectional analysis involved 309 pooled cloacal and tracheal swabs over three months were analyzed by reverse transcriptase&nbsp; polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RT-qPCR, virus isolation and haemagglutination and haemagglutinationinhibition test (HA &amp;HI).&nbsp; Virus isolation was attempted in 9 to 11 days old specific antibody negative (SAN) embryonated chicken eggs and fifteen samples showed&nbsp; haemagglutination. Subsequent tests confimed nine of these as NDV positive through haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. Conventional RT-PCR and RT-qPCR further validated five of the nine NDV positive isolates. The&nbsp; phylogenetic analysis of partial F gene nucleotide sequences revealed that all three isolates belonged to class II genotype XIV.2_XIVb. This&nbsp; finding underscores the persistent threat of NDV to local poultry, necessitating comprehensive virological surveillance to&nbsp; understand, isolate and characterize the virus in Nigeria. Therefore, monitoring for emerging lineages and sub-lineages in Nigeria birds&nbsp; is crucial for safeguarding commercial poultry production.&nbsp;</p> C.N. Chinyere N. Mpkuma C.A. Meseko I. Shittu E.C. Okwor W.S. Ezema C. Nwosuh Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 44 3 37 46 10.4314/nvj.v44i3.4 Outbreak Of Fowlpox In Commercial Brown Pullets Previously Vaccinated With Fowlpox Vaccine In Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>Fowlpox is a contagious viral disease of poultry, ranked as the third most important cause of mortality in Nigerian indigenous chickens.&nbsp; The present study confirms an outbreak of fowlpox in a flock of 500 Isa brown, 11-weeks-old pullets in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The&nbsp; pullets were managed under deep litter system and previously vaccinated with live attenuated vaccine (ABIC biological laboratories Ltd.&nbsp; Israel) at 8-weeks old. They had gross lesions suggestive of cutaneous fowlpox on skin of the head region with 58% morbidity but&nbsp; persistent low mortality rate of 13.8%. Fowlpox virus was isolated from the cutaneous lesions using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)&nbsp; inoculation in 9 to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs based on the presence of opaque-white pock lesions, then confirmed by Agar&nbsp; Gel Immuno Diffusion test using homologous known fowlpox virus (antigen) and antisera. Specific antibodies to fowlpox virus were quantified from the sera of the chickens using an indirect ELISA (Abbkine, Inc, China). The case was managed using; Intramuscular&nbsp; injection of oxytetracycline (TLA), topical applications of oxytetracycline spray as well as oral administrations of Doxygen® and vitamins.&nbsp; Apparently healthy chickens were revaccinated against fowlpox and the pen was thoroughly cleaned, washed, and disinfected. This report&nbsp; had shown an occurrence of vaccine failure, alongside a promising management option and highlighted the significance of&nbsp; vaccination with strict biosecurity measures in the control of fowlpox in Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> B.N. Umar M.T. Ahmad M.A. Ungogo Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 44 3 47 54 10.4314/nvj.v44i3.5 Radiographic Determination Of Costophrenic Angle Sizes In The Nigerian Indigenous Dog <p>Assessment of major organs like the heart, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm forms the most common thoracic investigation in small animal&nbsp; radiology. In other words, consideration of the sizes and shapes of thoracic sinuses are usually overlooked, unless the angular&nbsp; recesses are grossly abnormal. The objective of this cross-sectional prospective radiologic study was to measure and document normal&nbsp; index values of costophrenic angular recesses in the Nigerian indigenous dog breed. A total 30 dogs (average body weight: 8.19±2.45 kg)&nbsp; were used for the investigation. Thoracic dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal (VD) projections were obtained of each dog, giving a total of&nbsp; 60 radiographs. Each thoracic silhouette was carefully studied and the costo-phrenic angular recesses (CPAs) were measured, in both&nbsp; DV and VD views, and recorded. Expressed as means and standard errors of means, the results obtained were: 23.40±0.770/23.40±0.540&nbsp; for the left/right DV CPAs and 24.20±0.620/24.27±0.600 for left/right VD CPAs, respectively. The results of this study are clinically relevant&nbsp; and objectively easily applicable in canine practice for thoracic studies.&nbsp;</p> Rock Odimma Ukaha Kenneth Kalu Agwu Raphael O. Kene Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 44 3 55 64 10.4314/nvj.v44i3.6 West Nile Virus Sero-Reactive Animals Reveal Potential Zoonotic Threat In Nigeria <p>West Nile Virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito borne arbovirus that causes encephalitis in horses and human. It is a pathogen of public&nbsp; health importance globally. Data on WNV epizootics in Nigeria is limited, necessitating seroprevalence studies in animals. In this study,&nbsp; 118 sera from Polo horses and 66 archival sera from 31 horses, 10 chicken, 15 rabbits and 10 dogs in Northern and South-Western Nigeria&nbsp; were screened for WNV using West Nile multi-species competitive ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of WNV was 78.26% (n=144).&nbsp; In horses, 93.28% (n=139) of the 149 horse sera were positive, all the 10 chicken samples tested were negative to WNV, only 1 (6.67%) of&nbsp; the 15 rabbits sera tested positive and 4(40%) of 10 dog sera tested was positive. The lack of sero-reactivity in domestic chickens in this&nbsp; study does not suggest a low incidence rate in wild birds that are known reservoirs. Sero-reactivity in rabbits and dogs indicates their&nbsp; exposure and susceptibility to WNV and therefore requires further investigation. The high sero-reactivity recorded in horses reiterates&nbsp; the important role they play in WNV epizootics which underscores the public health risk associated with WNV at the human-animal&nbsp; interface in Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> Olanrewaju Eyitayo Igah Seyi Joshua Oyetunde David Oludare Omoniwa Emmanuel Richard Edeh Olayinka Asala Ismaila Shittu Clement Meseko Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 44 3 65 73 10.4314/nvj.v44i3.7 Evidence Of Trichophyton Tonsurans-Like Dermatophyte Isolated From Skin Lesions In A 2½-Year-Old Nigerian Indigenous Male Dog: A Case Report <p>This paper reports indications pointing to a rare case of the isolation of Trichophyton tonsuranslike Dermatophyte, which is&nbsp; anthropophilic, from skin lesions in a dog. Trichophyton tonsurans. Skin scrapings and hair pullouts were collected and processed for&nbsp; mycology. The susceptibility of the isolates to commonly used antifungal agents was tested. Direct microscopic examination of samples&nbsp; digested in 20 % KOH revealed hyaline septate filaments in skin scales and chains of endothrix spores in hair. Colonies on sabourauds&nbsp; dextrose agar were white, flat and velvety with a reddish-yellow pigmentation on the reverse side. Microscopic examination of the&nbsp; isolates stained with lactophenol cotton blue showed numerous inflated microconidia with abundant chlamydoconidia, typical of <em>T.&nbsp; tonsurans</em>. The isolate was sensitive to caspofungin and posaconazole but resistant to fluconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and&nbsp; griseofulvin. Trichophyton tonsurans is not a common pathogen of animals. This report provides evidence of the isolation of <em>T.&nbsp; tonsurans</em>-like Dermatophyte from skin lesions of a dogs in Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> P.H. Mamman J.S. Dalis M.T. Saidu D.E. Idoko H.M. Kazeem Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 44 3 74 81 10.4314/nvj.v44i3.8