Nigerian Veterinary Journal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj <p>The <em>Nigerian Veterinary Journal</em> (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock economy worldwide.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal can be found here: <a title="http://www.nvma.org.ng/" href="http://www.nvma.org.ng/news-events/12-news-and-events/39-nigerian-veterinary-journal" target="_blank">http://www.nvma.org.ng</a> and <a title="nvj.com.ng" href="http://nvj.com.ng/" target="_blank">nvj.com.ng</a></p> Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association en-US Nigerian Veterinary Journal 0331-3026 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Oocysts Output of Broilers Experimentally Infected with <i>Eimeria tenella</i> And Treated with N- Butanol Leaf Extract of <i>Khaya senegalensis</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj/article/view/206097 <p>A study to determine the anticoccidial efficacy of<em> Khaya senegalensis</em> in relation to oocyst shedding by broilers experimentally infected with<em> Eimeria tenella</em> was conducted. The development of drug- resistant field strains of <em>Eimeria</em> species has prompted the exploitation of alternative methods for controlling coccidiosis and there is an increasing use of medicinal plants as alternatives to orthodox medicine. Fresh leaves of <em>Khaya senegalensis</em> (KS) were collected dried under shade and the extract prepared using the maceration method in 70% methanol. The dried crude extract was partitioned into petroleum ether, chloroform, n-butanol and aqueous portions, dried with phytochemical analysis conducted on them. One hundred and twenty birds reared under standard management practice were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F). All the groups except group F (uninfected untreated group) were infected at four weeks old with sporulated <em>Eimeria tenella</em> oocysts (1.0 x 10<sup>5</sup> sporulated oocysts / ml / bird) obtained locally from the intestinal scrapings of experimentally infected broilers. Groups A, B and C were given calculated three dose levels of 11mg/kg, 33mg/kg, 99mg/kg respectively of the prepared n-butanol methanol extract twice daily for 5 days, group D was given Amprolium while E and F were each given 0.2ml water. Faecal samples were collected daily for 4 weeks into clean well labelled polythene bags and analysed in the laboratory for oocyst count using the McMaster counting chamber and were expressed as oocysts count per gramme of faeces. The birds were observed for pathological lesions grossly and histopathologically and the survival rates were determined. Data collected were analysed using analysis of variance and chi square. Results from the Phytochemical studies showed the presence of phenolic compounds in<em> Khaya senegalensis</em>. Post-infection faecal examination revealed oocyst load of +++ in all the infected pens (A-E) on the 6<sup>th</sup> day. Comparison of the groups with time showed statistical significance (P˂0.05). High mean oocyst production (A; 156060 ± 67020, B; 261590 ± 144310, C; 211620 ± 114280, D; 276930 ± 233650 and E; 159230 ± 100970) among the infected groups one week post infection as well as irregular oocyst production were observed in the course of this study. The higher mean oocysts count obtained in the infected untreated group (1748849 ± 40869) than the extract treated groups in the first week post treatment indicated that the extract had some inhibitory effects on oocyst production. This however, was dose dependent. Among the extract treated group, the 99mg/kg had lower mean oocyst production 2 weeks post treatment (9720 ± 3180) and this was comparable to the group treated with normal dose of the conventional drug Amprolium (8600 ± 40). This was therefore seen as the effective dose. Grossly, the extract had a beneficial effect in alleviating the damages to the caecal epithelium of the infected treated groups compared to the shrunken caeca of the infected untreated groups. The survival percentage was higher in the treated groups compared to the infected un treated group (55%) though Amprolium was more efficacious in the in vivo study with the highest survival rate of 90%. The histopathological lesions observed in the infected birds in this study were consistent with those associated with<em> E tenella</em> infection in which the parasite induced very severe lesions including severe villous atrophy and fusion. The anticoccidial efficacy of Khaya senegalensis promises greater areas for research as it relates to drug development and it is recommended that Khaya senegalensis should be exploited further for its anticoccidial properties using other parts of the plant.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Broiler chickens, <em>Eimeria tenella,</em> oocyst production, <em>Khaya senegalensis</em>, in vivo</p> M.O Otu I.A Lawal D George M Abubakar A.A Sekoni F Abeke E Adejoh-Ubani I Adeyinka M Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 41 3 192 213 10.4314/nvj.v41i3.1 Knowledge of Validation Status of Point-of-care Glucometers among Veterinarians and Veterinary Technologists in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj/article/view/206109 <p>Point-of-care glucometers (PCGs) have of recent almost replaced the conventional laboratory methods of blood glucose determination in animals. This study evaluated the level of awareness and knowledge about the use of handheld PCGs among veterinarians and veterinary technologists. Respondents to a structured questionnaire included academic staff and laboratory technologists from veterinary schools and public and private veterinarians across Nigeria. Design of the questions progressed from whether one had ever used a PCG before or not, how they knew about the PCG, the brands used, for what purposes and on which animals. Results showed that out of 209 respondents, 75 (36%) had used PCGs. Of this number, 37 (49.33%) used PCGs for research purposes, while 36 and 6.67% had used the PCGs for diagnosis of glucose disorders in animals and for both research and diagnostic purposes, respectively. The distribution of respondents that knew about the validation status of the PCGs used was 2.67%. As values generated by each PCG vary significantly in different species, there may be chances of reporting erroneous research conclusions as well as misdiagnosis of glucose disorders with consequent erroneous therapies in such species.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Point-of-care Glucometers, Validation status, Veterinarians.</p> C.O Okorie-Kanu O.J Okorie-Kanu C.A Akwuobu E.V Tizhe R.E Antia Copyright (c) 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 41 3 214 222 10.4314/nvj.v41i3.2 Clinicopathological Effects of Oral Administration of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Charcoal–Tree (<i>Trema Orientalis</i> Linn Blume) in Jamnapari Crossbred Goats https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj/article/view/206111 <p>The present study was aimed at evaluating the clinicopathological changes due to oral administration of ethanol leaf extract of<em> Trema orientalis</em> (ELETO) in Jamnapari crossbred goats. The clinical manifestations, gross and histopathological changes in the major vital organs were used as indices of the toxicity. The severity of gross and microscopic changes were evaluated by scoring technique. Twenty goats weighing between 15-20kg were divided into four groups with five goats in each group in a completely randomized design. The test groups I, II, III were administered ELETO at the dosages of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0g/kg b.wt per os/day respectively, for 14 days while, group IV served as a control. Groups II and III showed decreased appetite whereas, group III showed bilateral congestion of ocular mucous membrane, lacrimation, rectal tenesmus and a significant decrease in body weight compared to control. The main gross and microscopic changes were mild to moderate and included; engorgement of the gall bladder, congestion and icteric liver, hepatocellular degeneration, vacuolation, necrosis and renal congestion observed mainly in group III goats. The results indicate that the ELETO was hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at continued oral doses equal to or more than 2.0g/kg b.wt in goats but no significant toxicity when used at lowers doses. Therefore, special caution should be taken when keeping goats in areas with <em>T. orientalis.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ethanol extract, Trema orientalis, Clinicopathological changes, Goatsv</p> A Saleh A Usman N.B Ibrahim S.E Abalaka N.A Sani A Mohammed S.A Zainal-Ariffin Copyright (c) 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 41 3 223 233 10.4314/nvj.v41i3.3 Antihaemolytic, Antihaemorrhagic and Antifibrinolytic Effects of Fractions of <i>Buchholzia coriacea</i> Seeds on <i>Naja nigricollis</i> Crude Venom https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj/article/view/206186 <p><em>Bulchhozia coriacea</em> (Capparaceae) seeds are used in managing snake bite in Western Nigeria were investigated against <em>Naja nigricollis</em> (Spitting cobra) venom-induced hemolytic, hemorrhagic and fibrinolytic effects. This study was aimed at determining the antihaemolytic, antihaemorrhagic as well as antifibrinolytic effects of<em> B. coriacea</em> on<em> N. nigricolli</em>s crude venom. Microwave-assisted extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol was carried out. <em>Naja nigricollis</em> venom-induced erythrocyte lysis (100 %) was significantly reduced to 18% by the chloroform fraction at 0.625 mg/mL. At the concentration of 0.625 mg/mL, the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions administered in combination with the venom reduced percentage hemorrhagic activity to 23%, 17%, 49%, and 87%, respectively. In conclusion, <em>Bulchhozia coriacea</em> seed fractions exhibited significant antihaemolytic, antihaemorrhagic and antifibrinolytic activities against <em>N. nigricollis</em> crude venom and may beneficial as a pre-treatment the while victim is transferred to a healthcare facility to receive the definite treatment to ensure speedy recovery.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Antihaemolytic, antihaemorrhagic, fibrinolytic, venom, <em>Bulchhozia coriacea</em></p> J.I Achika R.G Ayo A.O Oyewale J.D Habila P.Y Ofemile Copyright (c) 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 41 3 234 240 10.4314/nvj.v41i3.4 Surveys of Canine Filarioids In Nigeria: The Path Travelled and the Way Forward https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj/article/view/206188 <p>Filarioid worms infecting dogs have recently received increased attention globally because of their zoonotic potential. In Africa and, particularly, in Nigeria, however, where there is preponderance of the risk factors for vector-borne diseases transmission, there are few reports of the disease in the canid and felid definitive hosts, the wild/domestic reservoirs and humans. Thus, the epidemiology of the disease in Nigeria remains sketchy and needs to be investigated. A retrospective analysis of reported canine filarioids in Nigeria was undertaken with the view to highlight what has been done and reported, existing gaps in knowledge, what needs to be done to bridge the gap and possibly how it could be done. Thirteen published works on canine filarioids using classical laboratory methods in Nigeria, reported the finding of <em>Dirofilaria immitis</em> (0.4–15.1%)<em>, Dirofilaria repens</em> (0.1–9.4%),<em> Acanthocheilonema reconditum</em> (0.4–9.2%) and a case of <em>A. dracunculoides</em> in an unspecified dog population. In most instances, the species identification of the filarioids reported was not conclusive due to limitation of the diagnostic methods employed. No human infection due to any zoonotic canine filarioid has been reported in Nigeria. Suggestions for prospective filarioids research in Nigeria were made.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Filarioids, dog, zoonosis, diagnosis, Nigeria</p> Kamani Joshua Javier Gonzlez-Miguel Copyright (c) 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 41 3 241 – 255 241 – 255 10.4314/nvj.v41i3.5 Comparative Clinical Effects of Early Pharyngostomy Alimentation and Intravenous Fluid Infusion following Oesophageal Transection and Anastomosis in Nigerian Breeds of Dogs https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj/article/view/206189 <p>Twelve adult Nigerian breeds of dogs were used to compare the clinical responses of dogs alimented through pharyngostomy tubes (PGTs) with those maintained on intravenous infusion (50:50 mixture of Ringers lactate and 5% dextrose saline) during the first 14 days following oesophageal transection and anastomosis (OTA). The dogs were assigned to two groups (n=6), the pharyngostomy tube (PGT) group and the intravenous fluid infusion (IVF) group (n=6). Dogs in both groups underwent routine OTA. The PGT group was fed blanched processed dog food at 70g/kg body weight for 14 days through PGTs, while the IVF group was maintained on intravenous fluids at a dose of 70 mL/kg body weight daily also for 14 days post operatively. The postoperative complications observed in both groups showed that the mortality rate in the IVF group (83.3%) was significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher than in the PGT group (16.7%). Vomiting and leakages at the site of oesophageal anastomosis did not differ significantly between the groups. Cervical swelling was observed in two dogs (33.3%) in the IVF group, while tenesmus and displacement of the tubes were recorded in 66.6% and 100% respectively of the dogs in the PGT group. It is concluded that feeding dogs which had undergone OTA through PGTs during the immediate postoperative period reduces their morbidity and mortality; and shortens the recovery period when compared with similar dogs maintained solely on intravenous fluids.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Oesophageal, Transection, Anastomosis, Pharyngostomy, Complications, Morbidity, Mortality.</p> J.O Omamegbe U.N Njoku S.E Ibup Copyright (c) 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 41 3 256 263 10.4314/nvj.v41i3.6 Immunomodulatory Effect of <i>Moringa oleifera</i> Lam. Aqueous Extract on the Burrowing Crab, <i>Cardiosoma guanhumi</i> (Latreille, 1828) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj/article/view/206190 <p><em>Moringa oleifera</em> has impressive range of nutritional and medicinal values which when consumed have influence on hematological profile which is applied as an index of physiological condition of various organisms and thus provide information about the health status of local populations. The study aimed to determine the effects of <em>M. oleifer</em>a aqueous leaves extract on the hematology, serum biochemical profile and antioxidant enzyme activities of the burrowing crab, <em>Cardiosoma guanhumi</em>. Thirty juveniles of<em> C. guanhumi</em> (Average weight 43.20±0.05 g) were tested, where six crabs were randomly selected and distributed per each tank (1 x 1x 0.6m<sup>3</sup>) of 1litre of water. Different diets containing <em>M. oleifera</em> aqueous extract at inclusion levels of 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, 1.5 ml, 2.0 ml and control were used to feed the crabs. Total Haemocyte Count ranged between 2733.33±0.90 mL and 6350.00±0.60 mL; there were significant differences among the treatment groups (p &lt; 0.05). Haemocyte sub-population variables showed that crabs fed the control and 2.0ml<em> M. oleifera</em> kg<sup>-1</sup> diet had increased in the granulocyte and monocyte populations but a decrease in the agranulocytes. The results of the serum enzymes showed an increase as the level of <em>M. oleifera</em> aqueous extract increases in the diet. Highest superoxide dismutase (75.43 ±21.25 min/mg pro) and catalase activities (2.96±0.18 min/mg pro), malondialdehyde (12.05±2.09 nmol/L) and glutathione concentrations (0.19 ±0.02 μmol/L) were recorded in crabs fed diet T4 (2.0ml <em>M. oleifera</em> kg<sup>-1</sup>), while the lowest were obtained in crabs fed control diet. The present study showed that the inclusion of<em> M. oleifera</em> aqueous extract up to 1.0ml kg<sup>-1</sup> will have immunomodulatory performance on <em>Cardiosoma guanhumi</em> without any deleterious effect on the crab’s health status.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hemato-Biochemicals, Land Crab, Lagos Lagoon, Plant Extract, Nigeria</p> I.F Jesuniyi R.O Moruf A.O Lawal-Are Copyright (c) 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 41 3 264 – 273. 264 – 273. 10.4314/nvj.v41i3.7 A rare case of equine Haemotropic <i>Mycoplasma</i> infection in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/nvj/article/view/206193 <p>Equine haemotropic mycoplasmosis (EHM) is a condition rarely reported worldwide. A horse presented with unspecific clinical findings and non-response to treatment to the common and endemic haemoparasitic and bacterial infections, warranted a thorough molecular investigation of suspected haemoparasitic infection given the fluctuating parasitaemia and the low sensitivity and specificity of Light Microscopy (LM) detection of haemoparasitic infections. Blood collected from an adult horse, domiciled at the University of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was screened by LM and PCR techniques for haemo-parasites. The 16S rRNA gene of pan<em>-Hemoplasma spp</em> was targeted amplified and sequenced using Sanger automatic sequencing techniques. This case shows the very first molecular evidence of EHM in Africa and Nigeria, and the third case in the World. Microscopic examination of the horse’s blood smear presented with signs of lethargy, inactivity, anorexia and moderate emaciation, showed numerous coccoid-shaped epierythrocytic parasites. Subsequent 16S rRNA sequence data and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of a haemotropic mycoplasma (<em>‘Candidatus</em> M. haemocervae’–like) in the horse. The hemoplasma sequence obtained falls in the same clade with some <em>Candidatus</em> Mycoplasma haemocervae sequences with which it shared more than 98.7% homology. This finding suggests that horses in this geographical region may also be suffering from EHM and calls for the need of epidemiological surveillance of equine hemoplasmosis with emphasis on their clinical, economic, performance and zoonotic implications in the sub-region.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nigeria, Horse, Haemotropic mycoplasma, <em>‘Candidatus</em> M. haemocervae’–like</p> A.N Happi P.E Oluniyi Copyright (c) 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 41 3 274 286 10.4314/nvj.v41i3.8