Prevalence of haemolysins in blood donors in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
Background: The presence of high titres of haemolysins (lytic antibodies) in the sera of donors could predispose to adverse blood transfusion reactions.
Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of haemolysins among blood donors at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State.
Methodology: A total of 1,370 donors were randomly selected for the study between April and September 2014. Each donor had 3mls of blood collected; 2mls was dispensed into plain bottles and serum extracted for haemolysin testing, while 1ml was dispensed into ethylene diaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) bottle for blood grouping. Haemolysin testing was done by reacting freshly prepared standard A, B, AB and O red cell suspensions with sera from each participant while blood grouping was done using commercial anti-sera kits. Ethical approval was obtained from the institution’s Review Committee, and all participants gave informed consent.
Results: The general prevalence of haemolysins was 220/1370 (16.06%), while alpha, beta and alpha plus beta haemolysins were detected in 70 (5.11%), 90 (6.5%) and 60 (4.38%) of donors, respectively. The number of donors with blood groups A, B and O were 265, 165 and 940, while the distribution of haemolysins was 18.87%, 18.18% and 14.89%, respectively. Of the 220 donors in whom haemolysins were detected, 18.2% (40/220), 27.3% (60/220), 40.9% (90/220) and 13.6% (30/220) were aged 18-27years, 28-37years, 38-47years and 48-57years, respectively.
Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of haemolysins in our donors, particularly in those with blood group A and in the age range of 38-47years.
Keywords: Blood groups, lytic antibodies, South-East Nigeria, transfusion