Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement

  • Mario Ricciardi
  • Floriana Gernone
  • Antonio De Simone
  • Pasquale Giannuzzi
Keywords: Mesencephalon, Midbrain, MRI, Stroke, Vulpes vulpes.


A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

Keywords: Mesencephalon, Midbrain, MRI, Stroke, Vulpes vulpes.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2218-6050
print ISSN: 2226-4485