Autologous blood patch pleurodesis treatment for persistent pneumothorax: A case series of five dogs (2016–2020)
Background: Autologous blood patch pleurodesis (ABP) has been described as a treatment for persistent pneumothorax in the dogs and among humans. Although the treatment of persistent or recurring spontaneous pneumothorax is classically surgical, it cannot always be performed due to medical or financial constraints. This case series describes the clinical course, etiology, and outcome of five dogs with persistent pneumothorax treated with ABP.
Case Description: Five client-owned dogs with persistent pneumothorax are presented. Two dogs had pneumothorax due to congenital pulmonary bullae, one due to thoracic trauma, another due to lungworm infection, and a fifth withunknown cause in the context of a relapsing subcutaneous haemangiosarcoma. Around 5 ml/kg of non-coagulated blood was aseptically collected from the jugular vein and injected via a thoracotomy tube immediately into the pleural cavity of dogs with persistent pneumothorax. The procedure was successful in four out of five dogs after one procedure, therefore a success rate of 80%. A repeat of the pleurodesis was attempted in the fifth dog, 12 hours after the first injection due to the recollection of the pneumothorax. Still, the dog died during anesthesia in preparation for the procedure. No complications that could be directly linked to ABP occurred.
Conclusion: ABP is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, effective, and safe procedure that can be useful for treating persistent pneumothorax that does not respond to conservative treatment and where surgical exploration cannot be carried out. Pneumothorax secondary due to trauma and congenital pulmonary bullae seem to respond well to ABP.