Open Veterinary Journal 2022-05-11T15:52:17+00:00 Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Open Journal Systems <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Care Report : Modified medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for severe bilateral congenital patellar luxation in a dog 2022-05-09T05:34:12+00:00 Mitsuhiro Isaka Daiki Kokubo Hiroshi Ueno <p><strong>Background</strong>: Lateral patellar luxation (LPL) is commonly diagnosed in large or giant breed dogs. In the surgicaloutcome for canine LPL, approximately half of the patients had complications, including reoperation and relaxation. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction has been widely used for human repetitive patellar luxation. This case report describes that modified MPFL reconstruction with other surgical techniques might be effective for severe canine LPL repair.<br><strong>Case Description:</strong> An 11-month-old intact male Siberian Husky was referred to us with the main complication reported as bilateral hind lameness and LPL, diagnosed by a family doctor. Physiological examination showed bilateral patellar luxation (grade 4). We performed general surgical techniques with modified MPFL. The patient showed good prognosis.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This report suggests that modified MPFL with general surgical techniques for LPL might be an effective surgical technique in dogs.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Surveillance of heat-related illness in small animals presenting to veterinary practices in the UK between 2013 and 2018 2022-05-09T05:36:34+00:00 Emily J. Hall Alan D. Radford Anne J. Carter <p><strong>Background</strong>: Heat-related illness (HRI) can affect all companion animals and is likely to become more common as global temperatures rise. The misconception that HRI is primarily a result of dogs being trapped in hot cars, highlights<br>a lack of awareness of HRI risk factors within the UK companion animal population.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This project aimed to review all species of small animal presentations of HRI to UK veterinary practices participating in the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET), describe the inciting triggers and seasonality of HRI events, and review the clinical grade of canine patients presenting with HRI.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Electronic consultation records were submitted by volunteer veterinary practices across the UK to SAVSNET. Cases were defined as animals presented for consultation with strong evidence of current, or recent heat induced illness during the study period (2013–2018).<br><strong>Results:</strong> The HRI cases included 146 dogs, 16 cats, 8 guinea pigs, 3 rabbits and 1 ferret. Of the 118 HRI cases with a recorded trigger, exercise was the primary trigger for dogs presenting (73.5%); 7 (6.9%) canine HRI events followed vehicular confinement. Environmental HRI was recorded as a trigger for the remaining dogs (19.6%), and for all cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and the ferret. Brachycephalic breeds comprised 21.2% of canine HRI cases, and all rabbits were brachycephalic breeds. Dogs with HRI were presented between April and October, with 42.5% during July, typically the UK’s hottest month of the year. Cats with HRI were presented between May and September, with 75.0% during June and July. The smaller companion species—ferrets, rabbits and guinea pigs—were presented during the UK’s summer months June to August.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study highlights the risk of HRI to all pet animals during the UK’s warmer summer months (June to August). The findings support previous claims that exercise is the most common trigger of HRI in dogs, while environmental HRI (a hot ambient temperature) accounted for all HRI events in cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and ferrets. Both brachycephalic dogs and rabbits were overrepresented, adding further evidence that owners of these animals should be particularly vigilant for HRI during hot weather.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Flea infestation on small wild mammals in Gharyan, Northwest Libya 2022-05-07T12:41:03+00:00 Waleed Yousuf Mohammed Belgasm Taher Shaibi Salah Ghana <p><strong>Background</strong>: Fleas play a major role as vectors for many pathogens that affect humans and livestock. Wild animals,especially wild rodents, are the most important hosts, acting as reservoir hosts for many flea species and pathogens.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to identify seasonality and hosts of fleas that parasitize small wild mammals in Gharyan, northwestern Libya.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Fleas were collected from seasonally infested hosts from summer 2017 to winter 2018.<br><strong>Results</strong>: This survey identified three flea species: <em>Pulex irritans, Xenopsylla cheopis</em>, and <em>Leptopsylla segnis</em>. <em>Pulex irritans</em> was collected from porcupines, <em>X. cheopis</em> from hedgehogs and jerboas, whereas <em>L. segnis</em> from gundis. The highest flea prevalence was in porcupines (35.00%) and the lowest was in gundis (11.11%). The highest intensity was in porcupines (10.43 ± 4.37), and the lowest was in jerboas (1.28 ± 0.24). The highest mean flea abundance was among porcupines of 3.65, whereas in hedgehogs, jerboas and gundis were less than 0.50 flea/host. <em>Pulex irritans</em> was collected during all seasons, while <em>X. cheopis</em> was collected during all seasons except winter, whereas <em>L. segnis</em> was collected only in spring.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The finding in this study has increased our awareness that small wild mammals can act as hosts for medically important flea species. All collected flea species have a great specialty in choosing their hosts. Flea intensity is affected by seasonal variations.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Exposure to low-dose bisphenol A induces spleen damage in a murine model: Potentially through oxidative stress? 2022-05-11T15:44:33+00:00 Taher Shaibi Hanan N. Balug Rabia O. Alghazeer Mohamed E. Ben-Othman Ahmeda E. Benjama Mohamed Elhensheri Bashir A. Lwaleed Mohamed A. Al-Griw <p><strong>Background</strong>: During early life, exposure to environmental toxicants, including endocrine disruptor bisphenol A(BPA), can be detrimental to the immune system. To our knowledge, a few researches have looked at the effects of developing BPA exposures on the spleen.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The murine model was developed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and mode of BPA actions on the spleen subsequent to prolonged early-life exposure to BPA.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Immature (3-week-old) male and female Swiss Albino mice were intraperitoneally injected with 50 μg/kg BPA in corn oil or corn oil alone for 6 weeks. Mouse spleens were harvested and examined histologically at 10 weeks old (adulthood).<br><strong>Results:</strong> We observed neurobehavioral impairments and a significant increase in peripheral monocyte and lymphocyte counts in mice (males and females). Moreover, several spleen abnormalities in both male and female mice were observed in adulthood. BPA-treated mice’s histopathological results revealed toxicity in the form of significantly active germinal centers of the white pulp and a few apoptotic cells. There was also a notable invasion of the red pulp by eosinophils and lymphocytes that were significantly higher than normal. Agarose gel electrophoresis provided further evidence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in the splenic tissues of BPA-treated mice compared to controls. In addition, there were increased levels of the lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde end-product, a marker of oxidative lipid damage, in the spleens of BPA-treated mice compared to controls.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study provides evidence that oxidative stress injury induced by early-life exposures to BPA could contribute to a range of splenic tissue damages during adulthood.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus in vaccinated chickens in Khartoum, Sudan 2022-05-09T05:40:23+00:00 Mohammed Gasim Omer Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla <p><strong>Background</strong>: Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD, Gumboro disease) has become more severe than in early outbreaks in the 1980s. The present research aims to study the epidemiology of IBD in Khartoum state and compare some commonly used laboratory techniques for diagnosis.<br><strong>Method</strong>: We collected epidemiological data from 30 farms that showed signs suggestive of IBD, estimated the morbidity and mortality rates, and interviewed the owners about the type and the doses of the used vaccines. We collected bursas of Fabricius for virus assays and histopathology. Samples positive in the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test were inoculated onto chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture and embryonated chicken eggs. Twenty two-day-old chicks were infected experimentally with three selected isolates, and morbidity and mortality rates were compared.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that 70% of outbreaks occurred between 6 and 8 weeks of age, and the mean mortality rate was 51%. Epidemiologic, clinical, gross, and histopathological findings were characteristic of the severe disease caused by the very virulent IBDvirus (vvIBDV). The farms that used intermediate or the intermediate plus vaccines had lowered mortality compared with the farms that used intermediate vaccines. The AGID was found more sensitive than the counter-immuno-electrophoresis (CIEP) since it detected 83.4% of the IBDV antigen in the samples while the CIEP detected 66.7% of the samples. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was found to be rapid, specific, and was more sensitive detecting 100% of the tested samples. Virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell culture was not successful.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: A vvIBDV is responsible for the recent outbreaks of the disease in Sudan, resulting in a mean high mortality rate of 51%, even in vaccinated flocks. The RT-PCR and AGID are the best methods for laboratory confirmation.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) <i>In-vivo</i> and <i>in-vitro</i> effectiveness of three insecticides types for eradication of the tick <i>Rhipicephalus sanguineus</i> in dogs 2022-05-09T05:44:11+00:00 Eman M. Aboelela Mohamed A. Sobieh Eman M. Abouelhassan Doaa S. Farid Essam S. Soliman <p><strong>Background</strong>: External parasites contribute to extensive harmful impacts on their hosts which is why control and eradication of external parasites have been included in all biosecurity plans of dog houses.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the <em>in-vitro</em> and <em>in-vivo</em> effectiveness of chemicals like Doramectin injectable and Fipronil 50 mg/ml drops and herbal mixes eco-friendly insecticides like phenylpyrazole–garlic–camphor mix spray for combating the external parasitism in dogs and their influence on the hematological, biochemical, and cortisol (CORT) profiles.<br><strong>Method:</strong> The <em>in-vitro</em> effectiveness of the insecticides was conducted by using a total of 216 developmental stage <em>Rhipicephalus sanguineus</em> (72 adults, 72 larvae, and 72 eggs) designed into three replicates of petri dishes (3 plates × 8 units × 3 stages/replicate); each replicate was exposed to 1 ml insecticide. The number of surviving ticks was recorded after 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours. Sixteen Rottweiler male dogs aged 1 year and 45.5 kg were divided into four groups. Three groups (G1, G2, and G3) were experimentally infested with<em> R. sanguineus</em> ticks 3–4 weeks post-dog arrival and kept under observation from zero-time of experimental infestation for 1–2 weeks. The three experimentally infested dog groups were treated with Doramectin injectable, Fipronil 50 mg/ml drops, and phenylpyrazole–garlic–camphor mix spray, respectively, and the fourth group was designed as a negative control.&nbsp; A total of 144 samples, including 48 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood, 48 whole blood, and 48 sera samples, were collected.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The <em>in-vitro</em> efficacy revealed highly significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01) 100% killing efficacy that was achieved after 8 hours in Doramectin and Fipronil 50 mg/ml and 24 hours in phenylpyrazole–garlic–camphor mix. The<em> in-vivo</em> trials revealed highly significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01) improvements of red blood cells, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, platelets, total and differential leukocytic counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates in the second hour, total protein, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, urea, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and CORT levels in the 2-week (P<sub>1</sub>) and 4-week posttreatment (P<sub>2</sub>) samples in Dormectin, Fipronil 50 mg/ml, and phenylpyrazole–garlic–camphor mix-treated dogs with more pronounced recovery in phenylpyrazole–garlic–camphor mix spray-treated dogs.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The insecticides were able to provide a high level of protection against experimental infestation with concern to the different modes of application. Phenylpyrazole–garlic–camphor mix spray (eco-friendly) achieved higher insecticidal action compared to the chemicals.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Metagenomic analysis of the intestinal microbiome in goats on cactus and <i>Salicornia</i>-based diets 2022-05-11T15:49:11+00:00 Fredy Fabián Domínguez Milly Edith Vega Crisanto Rosa Liliana Solís Castro Lourdes Vásquez Rojas Vanessa Miluska Baylon Cuba Gabriela Raquel Sucapuca Santos Marcos Walter Sanjinez Salazar Carlos Alberto Luque Ramos Eric Mialhe <p><strong>Background:</strong> The Peruvian coast is characterized by its arid and saline soils, the cactus being an alternative for arid soils and <em>Salicornia</em> for saline soils. Therefore, it is necessary to develop nutrition based on the intestinal microbiota in goats.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To identify the intestinal microbiota in goats through a metagenomic analysis.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: In this study, goats and kids were randomly selected and fed cacti and <em>Salicornia</em> as potential forage species compared to native grass to study the changes in the microbiota using massive sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene as a marker.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The sequencing results showed the taxonomic levels of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes at the phylum level as the most abundant in creole goats’ microbiome, varying from 18% to 36% and 47% to 66%, respectively. At the genus level, variants of the genus <em>Ruminococcaceae</em> stand out, related to cellulose degradation, as the most dominant in all samples, followed by<em> Christensenellaceae</em>, <em>Rikenellaceae</em>, and <em>Prevotellaceae</em>. Also, the genus <em>Akkermansia</em> appeared<br>in greater abundance in kids fed with cactus, being necessary for being related to the intestinal mucosa’s health and avoiding the adhesion of pathogens to the intestinal epithelium.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These microbiota changes based on diets with high fiber content are necessary to understand the adaptation of this species to favorable dietary changes.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) First phalanx exostosis in traditional equestrian horses in Western Libya 2022-05-09T05:53:50+00:00 Mohamed H. Abushhiwa Taher N. Elmeshreghi Abdulrhman M. Alrtib Emad M. Bennour Aiman H. Oheida <p><strong>Background:</strong> Orthopedic diseases involving the forelimb fetlock joint of horses other than those used in professional racing have not been widely reported in the literature. One of these problems is the exostosis on the proximal fore limb phalanx (P1), which has not been reported previously in Western Libya.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of P1 exostosis in traditional equestrian horses (known locally as Sarj horses) of different breeds in Libya that participated in a special social event and described its clinical findings radiographic appearance.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The current study involved 60 horses admitted to private veterinary clinics with varied fetlock orthopedic problems. The studied horses were aged between 6 and 11 years old and galloped on hard grounds. Clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out on all horses. Lateromedial radiographs for one or both forelimb fetlock<br>joints were acquired for each horse.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Clinical examination revealed that 21 horses (35%) had hard non-painful swelling on the dorsal aspect of fetlock with joint stiffness during flexion. In 19 of them, the swelling was bilateral. No forelimb lameness was noticed. Radiographically, hard swelling was diagnosed as bone exostosis, with various sizes, on the proximo-dorsal aspect of P1. There was also a new bone formation on the disto-dorsal part of third metacarpal bone in two cases.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study has documented the first report on bone exostosis on the proximo-dorsal aspect of the fore limb proximal phalanx as a common problem in Sarj horses that galloped on hard grounds in Western Libya. Although this bone lesion did not cause lameness in all reported cases, further investigations are warranted to identify its<br>histopathological nature, potential etiology, and proper treatment.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Case Report : Fatal congenital and traumatic cervical spine injuries in a captive newborn plains zebra (<i>Equus quagga</i>) 2022-05-11T15:52:17+00:00 Gabriela Fernandes Silva ifamorim@icbas.up.pts José Eduardo Gomes ifamorim@icbas.up.pts Raquel Cunha ifamorim@icbas.up.pts Ana Canadas-Sousa ifamorim@icbas.up.pts Fátima Faria ifamorim@icbas.up.pts Cláudia Baptista ifamorim@icbas.up.pts Nuno Alvura ifamorim@icbas.up.pts Luis Miguel Luis Miguel ifamorim@icbas.up.pts Irina Amorim ifamorim@icbas.up.pts <p><strong>Background</strong>: In this report, we describe the clinical, macro-, and microscopic findings of a newborn zebra victim of a fatal trauma and its possible causes are discussed in detail.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A plains zebra (Equus quagga) born in a Portuguese zoo was found in hypothermia and unable to get up. The animal was admitted to the hospital 36 hours later and, after the first hour of treatment and no attempts to get up, it began to convulse and died. At necropsy, subdural hematoma and atlantoaxial dislocation were the main findings.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The inability to pinpoint the exact moment of the lesions’ onset determines the importance of a thorough surveillance of the periparturient period and parturition of captive animals. Furthermore, literature concerning zebras, their reproduction, and neonatal period is scarce, reinforcing the need to report these cases.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Efficacy of synergistic activity of seed oils from <i>Carthamus tinctorius</i> (Safflower) and <i>Nasturtium officinale</i> (Watercress) on the lethality of the cattle tick <i>Hyalomma scupense</i> (Acari: Ixodidae) 2022-05-09T05:57:00+00:00 Dhouha Alimi Azhar Hajri Selim Jallouli Hichem Sebai <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a severe economic and public-health problem for cattle producers. The emergence of acaricide resistance to synthetic chemical treatments has prompted interest in developing alternative tick<br>control methods.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The main objective of the current research was to identify the chemical structure of <em>Carthamus tinctorius</em> and <em>Nasturtium officinale</em> seed oils and to assess their anti-tick properties against <em>Hyalomma scupense</em> ticks both alone and in combination (1:1).<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Analytical methods were used to analyze the chemical components. For<em> in vitro</em> assays, adults of <em>H. scupense</em> were immersed in <em>C. tinctorius</em> and <em>N. officinale</em> seed oils at 100, 125, 200, and 300 mg/ml concentrations; for 5 minutes. Larvae of <em>H. scupense</em> were dipped in 25, 50, 100, 125, 200, and 300 mg/ml doses of seed oils; the mortality percentage was determined after 24 hours.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The seed oil safflower was mainly composed of linoleic acid (84.48%), followed by palmitic acid (6.54%) and stearic acid (3.77%). Meanwhile, watercress seed oil was mainly composed of linolenic acid (50.78%), gondoic acid (13.57%), linoleic acid (10.58%), palmitic acid (8.02%), and erucidic acid (6.62%). The Adults Immersion Test showed the sensitivity of ticks to <em>C. tinctorius</em> and <em>N. officinale</em> seed oil: <em>C. tinctorius</em> seed oil caused (95%) mortality of <em>H. scupense</em> at 300 mg/ml, while <em>N. officinale</em> seed oil induced (88.68%) mortality at the same concentration. At a 200 mg/ml concentration,<em> C. tinctorius</em> and <em>N. officinale</em> oil combined caused 100% mortality. Tested oils showed larvicidal efficacy. LC50 values for<em> C. tinctorius</em> and <em>N. officinale</em> seed oils were 84.16 and 61.78 mg/ml, respectively, in 24 hours. LC50 value of oils association (50% <em>C. tinctorius</em>: 50% <em>N. officinale</em>) was 47.96 mg/ml. The mixture of seed oils from two plants tested against <em>H. scupense</em> larvae and adult females at a 1:1 ratio showed synergistic interaction.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Seed oils tested alone, and the mixture could be used as an alternative solution in the fight against ticks.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Long-term supplementation with an undenatured type-II collagen (UC-II®) formulation in dogs with degenerative joint disease: Exploratory study 2022-05-07T17:23:33+00:00 Miguel Ángel Cabezas Javier Benito Álvaro Ortega Elena Garcia-Pedraza <p><strong>Background</strong>: Undenatured type-II collagen (UC-II®) has demonstrated its benefits in degenerative joint disease (DJD) management.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: Exploratory clinical study to investigate the beneficial effects of FLEXADIN® Advanced in dogs.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Multicentre clinical prospective study, 110 client-owned dogs with a clinical diagnosis of DJD. Dogs received FLEXADIN® Advanced during 6 months. Pain, general condition, appetite, mobility, and lameness were assessed monthly by veterinarians and owners for 6 months. Compliance was assessed at 3 and 6 months. Statistical analysis was performed with non-parametric tests (significance, p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Results:</strong> Parameters assessed were significantly lower comparing inclusion with all subsequent months (p &lt; 0.0001). Compliance at 3 months showed a good score but was significantly lower (p &lt; 0.0001) at 6 months.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> FLEXADIN® Advanced, containing UC-II®, can be considered as a good complementary feed to provide joint support in dogs with mild to moderate DJD.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Short Communication: Antifungal susceptibility of <i>Malassezia pachydermatis</i> isolated from the external auditive conduct from dogs, in central Chile 2022-05-09T14:17:17+00:00 Andrea H. Núñez Fabian G. Hidalgo Pamela C. Morales Victor E. Silva Pamela E. Thomson Rodrigo A. Castro <p><strong>Background</strong>: External otitis is common in dogs, and one of the main agents involved is <em>Malassezia pachydermatis</em>, a yeast belonging to the otic microbiota. Empirical treatment can fail; therefore, it is essential to know the antifungal susceptibility profile to prescribe appropriate treatment, a fact scarcely reported in Chile.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to determine the antifungal sensitivity of <em>M. pachydermatis</em> isolated from the external auditory canal of dogs in central Chile.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Ear swabs from 30 dogs (15 healthy and 15 with external otitis) were used. Samples were subjected to cytology and fungal culture. The antifungal susceptibility was determined according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) document M44A-2 using the disk diffusion test from amphotericin B, Caspofungin, fluconazole, nystatin, clotrimazole, and voriconazole were used.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of <em>M. pachydermatis</em> was 66.7% from 8 healthy dogs and 12 with otitis. While fungal culture was not associated with the patient's clinical condition (p = 0.24), the yeast count by cytology was significantly higher in dogs with otitis (p = 0.003). The strains were sensitive to all antifungals except for Caspofungin, where 55% of the strains were resistant.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>Malassezia pachydermatis</em> is isolated more frequently in dogs with otitis, and the ear cytological examination is useful to differentiate colonized dogs versus dogs with otitis. In addition, most antifungals <em>in vitro</em> are active against this yeast, except Caspofungin, an antifungal used in human medicine. This situation should be further<br>monitored in epidemiological programs to evaluate the possible impact on Chilean public health.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The relationship between urethral sphincter mechanism incompetency and lower back pain: Positing a novel treatment for urinary incontinence in dogs 2022-05-08T10:59:34+00:00 David M. Lane Sarah A. Hill <p><strong>Background</strong>: In humans, multiple researchers have not only determined that there is a relationship between urinary incontinence (UI) and lower back pain (LBP), but that by treating the LBP, clinicians are able to improve or resolve the UI. Up until now, no equivalent canine research has investigated whether treatment of LBP can improve the clinical<br>signs of acquired, non-neurologic UI in dogs.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine if a relationship exists between LBP and urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) in dogs.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Review of medical records of all patients that presented to Points East West Veterinary Services with a history of naturally occurring acquired UI from May 2013 to December 2019. Thirty-nine patients treated for LBP using combined acupuncture and manual therapy, and 33/39 patients that also received concurrent photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, qualified for this study.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Treated patients showed a statistically significant reduction in both the frequency (p &lt; 0.01) and volume (p &lt; 0.01) of UI episodes. Treatment responses ranged from no improvement, to complete resolution of the USMI clinical<br>signs.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The reduction of USMI clinical signs following LBP treatment suggests a relationship between these two conditions. Combined acupuncture, manual therapy, with or without PBM was shown to be an effective treatment for USMI. By corollary, USMI incontinence should be considered a potential pain symptom.</p> 2022-05-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Role of eco-climatic factors in the distribution of bluetongue in endemic areas in Tunisia 2022-05-09T14:20:53+00:00 Thameur Ben Hassine Soufiène Sghaier Sarah Thabet Héni Haj Ammar Salah Hammami <p><strong>Background</strong>: Bluetongue (BT) is an important infectious, non-contagious, OIE-listed viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The disease is transmitted among susceptible animals by a few species of an insect vector in the genus Culicoides. Recently, during the fall of 2020 (September and October), a Bluetongue virus-4 epizootic marked the epidemiological situation in several delegations of Tunisia with clinical cases recorded in sheep and cattle.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: Determine the eco-climatic variables most likely associated with delegations reporting BT cases.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A logistic regression model (LRM) was used to examine which eco-climatic variables were most likely associated with delegations reporting BT cases.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Based on the LRM, our findings demonstrated that the key factors contributing significantly to BT cases' distribution among delegations in Tunisia included day land surface temperatures (DLST), night land surface temperatures (NLST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). A positive correlation between sheep distribution and rainfall<br>amounts was demonstrated. Statistical analysis focusing on the most affected delegations during the BT epidemic (the Sahel and the Centre of Tunisia) demonstrated that the epidemic situation seems to be a consequence of the combination of the following environmental parameters: NDVI with values ranging between 0.16 and 0.2, moderate rainfall 2–4-fold above the normal (10–50 mm) and DLST values between 32°C and 34°C in September.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings suggest and develop a robust and efficient early warning surveillance program in risk areas based on eco-climatic risk factors.</p> 2022-05-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Prosthetic polyester-based hybrid mesh for repairing of perineal hernia in dogs 2022-05-09T14:25:41+00:00 Abdelhaleem Hamada Elkasapy Mohamed M. Shokry Adel M. Alakraa Olla A. Khalifa <p><strong>Background</strong>: This study involves the use of a new multifunctional prosthetic mesh for treatment of the perineal hernia without complications. The prosthetic mesh is a hybrid platform of both synthetic and natural materials, mainly consisting of a synthetic commercial polyester fabric (CPF) to deliver the required mechanical integrity. The CPF mesh was coated by a natural biodegradable, biocompatible, and antimicrobial layer of chitosan incorporating phenytoin-loaded pluronic nanomicelles for healing promotion and ciprofloxacin-alginate polyelectrolyte complexbased microparticles as antibacterial agent.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the new developed multifunction polyester-based hybridmesh to repair perineal hernia clinical cases in dogs.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The used multifunctional prosthetic mesh is a hybrid of the natural biodegradable, biocompatible, and antimicrobial material used in six cases with perineal hernia.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The prosthetic polyester-based hybrid mesh was found very helpful in repairing clinical cases of perineal hernias in six dogs without unwarranted other surgical procedures or complications. The developed mesh proved its feasibility in terms of efficient biocompatibility, stability, sterilizability, and low cost.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prosthetic commercial polyester-based mesh provided the ideal and feasible alternative prosthesis with many advantages.</p> 2022-05-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Dietary aflatoxin B1-related risk factors for the presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of cows from Ecuador 2022-05-09T14:27:03+00:00 Byron Puga-Torres Lenin Ron Carlos Gómez <p><strong>Background:</strong> Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is hepatotoxic and carcinogenic, and it may be present in milk due to dairy cow's ingestion when feed is contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1).<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The objective of this research was to determine the potential risk factors of dietary AFB1 contamination in dairy cows, which causes AFM1 contamination of the raw milk, through an epidemiological survey and statistical analysis.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> 209 raw milk samples were collected, and AFM1 concentrations were detected by lateral flow immunochromatographic assay.<br><strong>Results:</strong> It was determined that 100% of the samples contained concerning levels of this mycotoxin with a mean of 0.077 μg/kg, which exceeds the maximum allowed by the European Union legislations (0.05 μg/kg) but not Ecuadorian Regulations (0.5 μg/kg). An adjustment to a linear model by weighted least squares was used to correct the presented heteroscedasticity. Potential risk factors for dietary AFB1 contamination were analyzed in relation to the appearance of AFM1 in milk from Ecuador. Among factors including legumes consumption, the use of silage, type of production system (intensive, extensive, and mixed), and farm size (small, medium, and big), the intensive production system and the big producers presented higher levels of AFM1.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Considering that all the milk samples presented AFM1 and since there is no specific feed determined to be a risk factor, it was concluded that any of the feed offered to dairy cows may be contaminated with AFB1. It is necessary to reduce AFB1 levels in feed by implementing good agricultural practices and improving feed storage to decrease milk AFM1 levels. This study identified that intensive systems have a lot of animals, and silage is incorporated into the diet, which can significantly increase AFM1 levels.</p> 2022-05-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Case Report : Urrets-Zavalia syndrome following cataract surgery in dogs: A case series 2022-05-09T16:57:12+00:00 Francisco Cantero Marta Leiva Laura Gaztelu Irene Cerrada Rita Vilao Cardoso Teresa Peña <p><strong>Background</strong>: In human medicine, Urrets-Zavalia syndrome (UZS) is a well-recognized but uncommon postoperative complication characterized by a fixed dilated pupil, accompanied by iris atrophy and glaucoma. Although it was originally reported in 1963 after penetrating keratoplasty surgery for keratoconus, it has been associated with various<br>ophthalmic procedures such as cataract surgery. The condition has not been previously published in the veterinary literature.<br><strong>Case Description:</strong> Three client-owned diabetic dogs that developed UZS´s triad after cataract surgery are described. Despite uneventful phacoemulsification in the six eyes, five developed moderate-to-severe postoperative ocular hypertension. Although intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes were initially controlled, fixed dilated pupils accompanied<br>by iris atrophy and chronic ocular hypertension were seen in the five affected eyes. Aggressive medical and surgical management maintained vision in three of those eyes. In one eye, uncontrolled IOP led to blindness.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This is the first published description of UZS in dogs, occurring after phacoemulsification. Although no exact, demonstrable causative element could be determined, we believe that should be considered a triggering condition for this syndrome, as it directly affects the ocular blood flow autoregulation and intrinsic uveal tissue integrity. Until the contrary is proved, diabetes mellitus might be considered as a risk factor for developing this syndrome after cataract surgery in dogs.</p> 2022-05-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Use of a customized 3D-printed external splint for the correction of a severe <i>pectus excavatum</i> in a 3-month-old kitten 2022-05-08T17:26:11+00:00 Giovanni Mattioli Matteo Zanfabro Mattia Bonazzi Marina Martano <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Pectus excavatum</em> is a rare congenital or developmental deformity of the chest wall that has been reported in both dogs and cats. The clinical symptoms vary in severity and are correlated with the grade of the deformity. The most severe cases are at a very high risk of intra- and post-operative complications that could be fatal.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 3-month-old kitten was presented for severe dyspnea and exercise intolerance. After the radiographic diagnosis of severe <em>pectus excavatum</em>, a splint was designed based on the computed tomography scan of<br>the kitten. A locking mechanism was applied on a dedicated pocket on the splint and secured with commercial glue. Five sutures were placed, the most caudal three with a surgical approach to the corresponding sternebra. The three caudal traction sutures were progressively tensioned during the first 2 weeks, and then tied. The splint was removed 1 month postoperatively; neither surgical nor splint-associated complications were observed. The kitten well tolerated the splint and the owner reported no further episodes of dyspnea or exercise intolerance. Vertebral and frontosagittal indexes were 3.2 and 9.1 at presentation, respectively, and 10.2 and 2.0 at 4 months postoperatively.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The use of a patient-specific 3D-printed external splint associated with a progressive correction of the pectus excavatum can be a better solution for the treatment of severe cases of <em>pectus excavatum</em>, where a sudden distension of the rib cage could cause re-expansion injuries.</p> 2022-05-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)