Open Veterinary Journal 2023-11-17T10:24:29+00:00 Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Open Journal Systems <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Is camel’s urine friend or enemy? Review of its role in human health or diseases 2023-11-17T06:23:06+00:00 Mohamed Tharwat Tariq I. Almundarij Madeh Sadan Faten Khorshid Ayman Swelum <p>Camels play an important role in the pastoral mode of life by fulfilling basic demands of livelihood. Various pathologies,<br>such as tuberculosis, hemorrhoids, ascites, increased size of the abdomen, gas colic, anemia, and abdominal tumors,<br>were treated with animal urine, including camels, horses, donkeys, sheep, goats, elephants, and buffalo. Thirty different<br>compounds were analyzed in camel urine by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. For inductively coupled<br>plasma mass spectrometry analysis, 28 important elements were analyzed in the urine of both camel and bovine. It was<br>found that the inorganic elements are almost similar, except sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, and magnesium are higher<br>in levels in camel urine, while chromium is high in bovine urine. Camel urine also contains different nanoparticles,<br>crystals, and nano-rods with varying shapes and sizes, which offer potent selective cytotoxic activity against several lines<br>of cancer cells. It is believed that the camel’s urine has a therapeutic effect for a wide range of diseases such as chill,<br>fever, or even tumors; therefore, it has been consumed in the Arabian Peninsula for a long time. Usually, patients take<br>it directly or by mixing a few drops with camel milk. Camel urine is also used for therapeutic purposes, most widely<br>in Asia, Africa, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other European countries. The religious aspect of using<br>camel urine in treatment comes from the fact that there has been convincing evidence that the Prophet Mohammad<br>(PBUH) suggested the use of camel urine to treat his companions who were suffering from abdominal pains at that<br>time. The camel’s urine has anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. It also has<br>hepato-protective and cardiovascular effects.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Echocardiographic characterization of cardiac chambers and vasculatures in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during diastolic and systolic phases 2023-11-17T06:38:31+00:00 Arafat Khalphallah Enas Elmeligy Khaled A. Khesruf Haitham H. Mohammed Abdulrahman Abdulkarim Ashraf M. Abu-Seida Al-lethie A. Al-lethie <p><strong>Background</strong>: Ultrasonography had diagnostic importance in the evaluation of different diseases in buffaloes, including<br>cardiovascular diseases.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The current work describes the normal echocardiographic findings in healthy buffaloes, along with establishing<br>reference values for echocardiographic dimensions for both sides of the heart, i.e., left and right ones.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: About 30 healthy adult buffaloes that belonged to private farms in Assiut, Egypt, were included in this study.<br>Each animal underwent a complete clinical evaluation as well as hematological analyses, lipid profile indices, liver<br>functions, cardio-thoracic radiography, and echocardiography to confirm no diseased conditions were detected. The<br>study was conducted on healthy buffaloes (n = 30) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The obtained results reported healthy buffaloes with normal clinical findings as well as indices of blood pictures<br>and serum biochemicals that were within the reference intervals. Radiography revealed a free reticulum and a welldefined diaphragm. The heart was seen as a typical radio-opaque organ. Ultrasonographically, using grayscale B-mode and M-mode, the heart was commonly imaged from the left fourth intercostal space. Different&nbsp; echocardiographic views were described, including the four chamber view, i.e., right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV),&nbsp; tricuspid valve (TCV), left atrium, left ventricle, mitral valve, and interventricular septum (IVS), and the right ventricular&nbsp; outflow tract, i.e., RA, TCV, RV, pulmonary artery (PA), and pulmonary valve. Cross sections in each of the apex and base&nbsp; of the heart were described. Echocardiographic dimensions during cardiac diastole and systole, including diameters and wall thickness of each of the atria and ventricles, were demonstrated. Interventricular septal thickness wall thickness as&nbsp; well as diameters of the aorta and PA, were stated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The work tried to put reference values on the normal&nbsp; echocardiographic dimensions using 2-D B-mode gray scale ultrasonography in healthy adult buffaloes. These&nbsp; echocardiographic reference dimensions with normal echocardiographic imaging will be very helpful in enhancing the&nbsp; diagnostic efficacy of ultrasounds for recognizing abnormal findings related to cardiac disorders.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Morphological and histological structure of hepatopancreas in rock goby <i>Gobius paganellus</i> on the western coast of Libya 2023-11-17T06:50:02+00:00 Salma Aribe Abusrer Hanan Husain Shtewi <p><strong>Background</strong>: The rock goby, <em>Gobius paganellus</em>, is not a commercial species. This species has an essential role in the<br>coastal ecosystem as a biological indicator. Therefore, it has been selected as the study’s model species.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: Due to the insufficient studies that have described the hepatopancreas of G. paganellus, this study aimed to provide information on the anatomical and histological structure of the hepatopancreas of the alimentary canal of this<br>species on the western coast of Libya.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Fifty mature <em>G. paganellus</em> specimens were collected from the northwest of Libya (Tajoura, Jodaem, and<br>Farwa Island). Total length and total weight of the samples were measured and performed by using gross anatomy and<br>histology. Then, the histological sections (3–5 µm) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E).<br><strong>Results</strong>: Morphologically, the liver has a large pyriform lobe. The dorsal surface of the liver is shiny and smooth, and<br>the ventral surface contains shallow sulci; each sulus has a large blood vessel. Histologically, the liver is wrapped with<br>a thin capsule of fibro-connective tissue. The hepatic parenchyma is made of hepatocytes with blood sinusoids. The<br>hepatocytes are polygonal-shaped cells and have no hepatic lobules or portal triads. Melano-macrophage centers are<br>distributed next to the blood vessels and bile ducts. The bile ducts are lined by columnar epithelial cells. The exocrine<br>pancreatic tissue was observed in the liver parenchyma, and it consists of acini that are composed of pyramidal cells<br>and contain zymogen granules.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The liver of this species has both pancreatic and liver tissue, which was discovered in this investigation for the first time.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Syringe immersion test as <i>in vitro</i> bioassay against <i>Rhipicephalus microplus</i>: Macrocyclic lactones dose-response relationship 2023-11-17T07:06:25+00:00 Diego Robaina Jessica Caballero Gonzalo Suarez <p><strong>Background</strong>: For the diagnosis of tick sensitivity against different acaricides, there are in vitro and in vivo methods. The<br>main in vivo method, the stable test, is considered a defining methodology. In Uruguay, the <em>Rhipicephalus microplus</em><br>(<em>R. microplus</em>) strain Mozo is used as the standard susceptible strain by the regulatory authorities. In vitro techniques<br>applied both on adult and larvae stages are validated by FAO and can serve as an orientation diagnosis of the resistance<br>profile developed in field conditions. An alternative was proposed as a modification of the larval immersion test (LIT),<br>where syringes were used seeking to reduce the work necessary to perform the original technique, resulting in the syringe immersion test (SIT).<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of this study was to expand the SIT for the characterization of sensitivity to Macrocyclic Lactones (MLs) in&nbsp; <em>R. microplus</em> and provide information on field strain sensitivity of <em>R. microplus</em> larvae.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Log-logistic dose-response model for Ivermectin (IVM), Doramectin (DRM), and Moxidectin (MOX) were<br>performed using concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20.0 ppm (n = 6, 3 replicates per level on each drug). Larvae<br>sensitivity results were determined after 24 hours of incubation at 27°C/90% RH, counting live/dead larvae. The final<br>model will be decided as the best fit according to the model selection AIC criteria for each drug. Pharmacodynamic<br>parameters [lower limit, slope, and effective dose at different levels (ED20, ED50, ED80, and ED95)] and its 95% confidence interval were considered for drug comparison.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Dose-response models were fitted for IVM, DRM, and MOX. MOX had the lowest ED50 of the three drugs, implying that MOX is of higher potency (two folds) when compared to IVM and DRM on R. microplus larvae using SIT.&nbsp; DRM had a different slope compared to IVM and MOX (p &lt; 0.05), while IVM and MOX showed a similar slope (p &gt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study allowed us to standardize the technique for larvae immersion for each ML, granting a new tool<br>for in vitro test as a screening technique for tick sensitivity.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Possible role of pomegranate fruit in reversing renal damage in rats exposed to Phenylhydrazine 2023-11-17T07:34:08+00:00 Nabil Abbas Soliman Sherif Wajih Mansour Mohamed Ahmed Ammar Noura Ahmed Hassan Rehab Hamed Abdallah Mohamed <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pomegranate granatum (molasses and peels) and its constituents showed protective effects against natural toxins such as phenylhydrazine (PHZ) as well as chemical toxicants such as arsenic, diazinon, and carbon<br>tetrachloride.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The current study aimed to assess the effect of pomegranate molasses (PM), white peel extract, and red peel extract on nephrotoxicity induced by PHZ.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: 80 male rats were divided into eight equal groups; a control group, PM pure group, white peel pomegranate<br>pure group, red peel pomegranate pure group, PHZ group, PM + PHZ group, white peel pomegranate + PHZ group and<br>red peel pomegranate + PHZ group. Kidney function, inflammation markers, antioxidant activities, and renal tissue<br>histopathology were investigated.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results revealed that PHZ group showed a significant increase in lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH),&nbsp; malondialdehyde (MDA), creatinine, uric acid, BUNBUN, C - reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor,<br>thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with a significant decrease of<br>catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as compared with a control group.<br>Other pomegranate-treated and PHZ co-treated groups with pomegranate showed a significant decrease of LDH,<br>MDA, creatinine, uric acid, BUN, tumor necrosis factor, TBARSs, and TAC with a significant increase of CAT, GPx,<br>and SOD as compared with PHZ group.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Collectively, our data suggest that red, white peels, and molasses have anti-toxic and anti-inflammatory<br>effects on renal function and tissues.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Molecular genotyping of <i>Salmonella spp</i>. isolated from cheese samples of local stores in Al-Diwaniyah city, Iraq 2023-11-17T07:44:05+00:00 Orooba Meteab Faja Afrah Sabeeh Mhyson Wisam Reheem Atiyah Basima Jasim Mohammed Azal Adnan <p><strong>Background</strong>: Food safety is an important subject that the global cheese industry increases awareness of. This urges<br>these economic sectors to elevate the level of research to minimize cheese contamination with pathogenic bacteria,<br>such as <em>Salmonella.</em><br><strong>Aim</strong>: Based on these merits, this study was conducted to genotype Salmonella spp. isolated from cheese samples of<br>local stores in Al-Diwaniyah City, Iraq.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The study used 41 samples of local fresh unsalted white cheese in a selective-growth-based isolation of<br>Salmonella. These isolates were confirmed utilizing a slide-agglutination (SA) test and VITEK® 2 system (V2S). Then,<br>the isolates were subjected to conventional PCR and sequencing techniques that both targeted the 16S rRNA gene. For<br>subtyping, the <em>Salmonella</em> isolates were subjected to a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR method.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results of both SA and V2S revealed the presence of 14 (34.2%) isolates of <em>Salmonella spp</em>. in the cheese<br>samples. The PCR confirmed 6 (42.9%) of these isolates, which further were defined with close nucleotide similarity<br>(98.03%) and (97.88%) to different world isolates, such as <em>Salmonella enterica subsp. Arizonae </em>and <em>Salmonella</em><br><em>enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi,</em> respectively. The RAPD-PCR findings showed different fragments for all the<br>tested isolates.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The present study indicates that the samples of the local fresh unsalted white cheese contain different Salmonella genotypes, which could be originated from different contamination sources.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Serological identification of MERS-CoV in camels of Wasit province, Iraq 2023-11-17T07:55:21+00:00 Hala S. R. AL-Taee Azhar Ali Sekhi Hasanain A. J. Gharban Hussien M. A. Biati <p><strong>Background</strong>: Since the first human case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) caused by Coronavirus (MERS- CoV) in 2012, several evidence bases have shown one-humped camels as the main reservoir host, from which infection is transmitted to humans.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: Serological investigation of MERS in dromedary camels in Wasit province (Iraq), detection severity of infection, and association to some risk factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 455 dromedary camels were selected randomly from two main districts in Wasit province, Iraq, during January and April (2023). Sera of all study camels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and titers of positive study animals were categorized according to their severity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Serological testing&nbsp; yielded 37.58% positive animals for MERS infection. According to the severity of positive ODs (titer), a total of 53.22%,&nbsp; 30.99%, 12.28%, and 3.51% showed mild, moderate, strong, and very strong infections, respectively. Regarding risk&nbsp; factors, significant elevation in seropositivity was seen in camels of &gt;3–6 and &gt;6 years old and reduced in camels of £3&nbsp; years old with an elevated risk of MERS with increased age. Regionally, seropositivity and relative risk were increased in&nbsp; the camels of Shaykh Sa’d when compared with Al-Numaniyah. Regarding sex, no significant variation was detected&nbsp; between seropositive females and males; however, male camels appeared at higher risk than females. Association&nbsp; between the severity of MERS infection and risk factors revealed that there was a significant increase in mild and&nbsp; moderate infections in female camels of &gt;6 years old; whereas strong and very strong infections were seen in male&nbsp; camels of ³3–6 years old. Mild and very strong infections were recorded in Shaykh Sa’d; while moderate and strong&nbsp; infections in Al-Numaniyah.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study indicated a longstanding existence of MERS-CoV in camels of Wasit&nbsp; province; therefore, recent infections or active viral excretion are required for confirmation by molecular approaches.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Monitoring of recessive defects associated with low reproductive performance in dairy cattle in Uruguay 2023-11-17T08:05:08+00:00 Andrea Branda-Sica Rody Artigas Elena de Torres Evangelina Kinley Paula Nicolini Mari­a Teresa Federici Silvia Llambi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Most dairy cattle breeds originate show an average generational inbreeding rate of 1%, which favors the<br>occurrence of recessive defects associated with low reproductive performance.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The objective of this study was to monitor recessive defects associated with low reproductive performance in<br>dairy cattle.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: To monitor bulls carrying the Holstein Friesian haplotype (HH) 1, HH3, and HH4 haplotypes, we analyzed<br>the records of 3,028 national and imported Holstein Friesian bulls from the 2021 updated sires’ catalog published<br>by “Evaluaciones Genéticas Lecheras”; and to determine the presence of these mentioned haplotypes, as well as<br>Jersey haplotype (JH) 1 and complex vertebral malformation (CVM), were genotype with the GeneTitan® 2,500 single<br>nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) bovine chip, estimate their frequencies and evaluate their impact on the fertility of<br>100 Holstein Friesian cows and 70 Holstein Friesian-Jersey crosses belonging to an experimental dairy.<br><strong>Results</strong>: From a total of 1,468 (48.5%) bulls with genetic information from the sires’ catalog for HH1 and 1,471 (48.6%)<br>for HH3 and HH4, we found 90 (6.1%) carriers for HH1, 60 (4.1%) for HH3, and 6 (0.4%) for HH4, respectively. By<br>genotyping with the chip, we calculated the herd frequency of the mutant alleles and herd prevalence of carriers for<br>HH1 and CVM as q = 0.003 and 0.022; 0.59% and 4.3% (call rate &gt;0.99), respectively. No mutant alleles were found<br>for HH3, HH4, and JH1 in the analyzed population. We examined reproductive data by observing the presence of CVM<br>and HH1 mutant alleles in repeat cows with an average of four services to achieve pregnancy.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study demonstrated the presence of recessive defects associated with low reproductive performance<br>in the analyzed population, which can affect the health and productivity of dairy cattle. Therefore, cows and bulls<br>should be closely monitored through genetic testing to lower the incidence of recessive defects in dairy cattle.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Molecular identification and cross-immunogenic study on two field isolates of <i>Mycoplasma synoviae</i> isolated from broilers in five districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2023-11-17T08:17:30+00:00 Atta Ur Rehman Abdul Haleem Shah Sajjad Ur Rahman Saifur Rehman Muhammad Kamal Shah Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari Imdadullah Khan Muhammad Inamullah Malik Andreas Berny Yulianto <p><strong>Background</strong>: Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an important poultry pathogen causing heavy economic losses Worldwide.<br>Subclinical persistence of this pathogen is the major issue to control its prevalence.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to determine the molecular and cross-immunogenicity of MS among broilers in five Districts<br>of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was conducted by collecting 434 specimen samples from 40 broiler farms and desi poultry in five&nbsp; districts of KP. Specimen samples from the broiler birds (n = 150), broiler farm environment (n = 264), and desi poultry&nbsp; birds (n = 20) were aseptically collected and serially passaged in Modified Frey’s broth. The homologous and&nbsp; heterologous antibody reactions were studied in rabbits. Before inoculation into rabbits, the MS isolates were inactivated by formalin and adjuvanted with Montanide.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The overall turbidity prevalence in Frey’s broth was&nbsp; observed as 109/434 (25.11%) samples, and these turbiditypositive samples were shifted on Frey’s agar. After the&nbsp; appearance of classic fried egg colonies, the Biochemical confirmation was supported by the production of catalase and&nbsp; phosphatase, reduction of tetrazolium, film and spot assay, and fermentation of glucose for species differentiation in&nbsp; avian mycoplasma. The MS prevalence percentage was recorded as 2% (9/434) through biochemical tests. The PCR&nbsp; results showed 0.5% MS prevalence with two field isolates (named MS-1 and MS-2). Both MS-1 and MS-2 field isolates&nbsp; showed similar values (42.2) of homologous geometric mean titer (GMT). While the heterologous GMT for MS-1 serum&nbsp; against MS-2 isolate was lower (27.9) as compared to MS-2 serum against MS1 isolate (38.9). No titer was detected in the&nbsp; control group (Group-III). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, the results indicated the existence of MS in broiler birds and&nbsp; high homologous titers recorded between field isolates, which is a perpetual menace to poultry.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Clinical signs associated with prostatic disorders in canines: Retrospective study in Uruguay (2011–2019) 2023-11-17T08:48:11+00:00 Guillermo Cazzuli Gonzalo Suarez guillecazzu@hotmail.comv Stefania Busconi Juan Pablo Damian Paula Pessina <p><strong>Background</strong>: Prostate disease represents about 0.7% of diseases in canines. The main diagnosed pathology is benign<br>prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the reports that study the association of a certain clinical sign with a specific prostate disease are scarce.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of the most commonly observed clinical signs associated with the different prostatic disorders in canines admitted to the hospital of the Facultad de Veterinaria–<br>Universidad de la República between 2011 and 2019.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This retrospective study included 7,729 male canines treated at the hospital de la Facultad de Veterinaria–<br>Universidad de la República (Montevideo, Uruguay) between 2011 and 2019. 289 canines with a presumptive/definitive<br>diagnosis of prostate diseases were selected, recording the presence/absence of associated clinical signs. Results were<br>reported in terms of odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Results</strong>: The five most frequently reported clinical signs were tenesmus (34%), anorexia (32%), lethargy (27%), prostatomegaly or pain during rectal examination (25%), and abdominal pain from palpation (22%). Diarrhea (3.39<br>vs. 0.33 OR), anorexia (2.07 vs. 0.39 OR), weight loss (2.27 vs. 0.27 OR), hematuria (3.25 vs. 0.44 OR), and urinary&nbsp; incontinence (2.96 vs. 0.33 OR) indicated a highest predictive value (p &lt; 0.05) with prostatitis versus BPH, respectively.<br>Being weight loss, the clinical sign is more frequently associated with neoplasia (20.2 OR, p = 0.002).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study shows that there are clinical signs with a higher degree of association for certain canine prostatic disorders than others</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Molecular detection of Spirochetes and Borrelia burgdorferi in stray dogs of Nineveh province, Iraq 2023-11-17T08:59:57+00:00 Eva Ayser Ajaj Zahraa Mustafa Al-Jumaa <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Borrelia burgdorferi</em> is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Lyme disease or borreliosis in domestic<br>and wild animals, including dogs, with the possible transmission to humans.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study was conducted to investigate the infection rate of <em>Spirochetes </em>and<em> B. burgdorferi</em> in stray dogs in Nineveh province, Iraq.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: During the period from May to October (2022), a total of 55 stray dogs were selected randomly from different areas in Nineveh province, Iraq. Blood samples were collected from cephalic venous and tested molecularly using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The present study revealed that the total infection rates of <em>Spirochetes </em>and <em>B. burgdorferi</em> were 41.82% and 27.27%, respectively. Concerning age, values of infection rate, odds ratio, and relative risk of <em>B. burgdorferi</em> were increased significantly in dogs aged ? 4 months (42.86%, 3.505%, and 2.438%, respectively), while decreased in dogs<br>of ? 1–3 (12.5%, 0.337% and 0.42%, respectively) and ? 3 (13.33%, 0.32% and 0.409%) years old when compared to dogs aged 5–12 months (27.27%, 1% and 1%, respectively). While concerning dogs sex, a significantly higher infection rate, odds ratio, and relative risk of<em> B. burgdorferi</em> were shown in females (32.56%, 5.495% and 6.792%, respectively) compared to males (8.33%, 0.182% and 0.147%, respectively).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first Iraqi study on the prevalence of spirochetes, in particular <em>B. burgdorferi</em>, in stray dogs in Nineveh province (Iraq). However, additional studies of <em>B. burgdorferi </em>infection in other animals as well as vectors such as ticks in different geographic areas, appear necessary to detect variation in the distribution patterns of infection. In addition, owners and veterinarians should be aware of zoonotic diseases transmitted from wild and domestic animals, in particular those with tick-bite histories.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Asiatic acid increased locomotor and head width by inducing brain-derived neurotrophic factor in intrauterine hypoxia-exposed zebrafish 2023-11-17T09:14:00+00:00 Ariani Ariani Husnul Khotimah Nurdiana Nurdiana Masruroh Rahayu <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hypoxia ischemia leads to abnormal behavior and growth. Prenatal hypoxia also decreases brain adaptive<br>potential, which can cause fatal effects such as cell death. Asiatic acid (AA) in Centella asiatica is a neuroprotector through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to analyze the effect of AA as a neuroprotector against hypoxia during intrauterine development<br>on locomotor activity, head width, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The true experimental laboratory research used a posttest control-only design. Zebrafish embryos (Danio<br>rerio) aged 0–2 dpf (days postfertilization) were exposed to hypoxia with oxygen levels reaching 1.5 mg/l. Then, AA<br>was administered at successive concentrations, namely, 0.36, 0.72, and 1.45 μg/ml, at 2 hpf (hours postfertilization), 3,<br>6, and 9 dpf. Head width, velocity activity, and BDNF expression were observed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Intrauterine hypoxia significantly decreased head width, velocity rate, and BDNF expression (&lt;0.001). Administration of AA at all concentrations and age 9 dpf to zebrafish larvae with intrauterine hypoxia exposure increased head width (p &lt; 0.0001), velocity (p &lt; 0.05), and relative mRNA expression of BDNF (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: AA is&nbsp; potentially neuroprotective to the brain in zebrafish larvae exposed to hypoxia during intrauterine development&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Protective effect of vitamin C against thiamethoxam-induced toxicity in male rats 2023-11-17T09:25:12+00:00 Ibrahim A. Hamed Refat M. Sherif El-Sayed A. El-Sheikh Ahmed M. Aldawek Aly A. Shalaby <p><strong>Background</strong>: Thiamethoxam (THM) is a neonicotinoid insecticide used to control different insect pests on fruits, vegetables, and field crops. The misuse and continuous exposure to THM cause many harmful effects on health and<br>the reproductive system.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This work aims to investigate the efficiency of vitamin C (vit C) in reducing or eliminating the harmful effects of THM on the testes, liver, and kidney of male rats.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Forty-eight sexually mature male Wister albino rats (weight: 170–190 g; age: 10–11 weeks) were randomly allocated into six groups (8 males/group). The control group was orally given distilled water, vit C group was orally treated with 200 mg/kg b.wt of vit C, group 1/10 of THM LD<sub>50</sub> orally treated with 156.3 mg/kg b.wt of THM, group<br>1/20 of THM LD<sub>50</sub> orally treated with 78.15 mg/kg b.wt of THM, group 1/10 of THM LD<sub>50</sub> + vit C orally treated with 156.3 mg/kg b.wt of THM + 200 mg/kg b.wt of vit C, and group 1/20 of THM LD<sub>50</sub> + vit C orally treated with 78.15 mg/kg b.wt of THM + 200 mg/kg b.wt of vit C. All groups were treated for five days per week for a whole period of 58 days. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment, and serum was extracted for liver and kidney functions and antioxidant measurements. Reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicles) were collected and weighed at the end of the experiment.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that groups exposed to 1/10 and 1/20 of THM LD<sub>50</sub> significantly (p &lt; 0.05) decreased the<br>body weight, the reproductive organ weights (testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicles), spermatid count, sperm (count<br>and motility), and testosterone concentration with an increase in abnormalities. In addition, the groups exposed to THM<br>showed a decrease in protein concentration, albumin, and globulin, and caused an increase in glucose concentration.<br>The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine, urea, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were increased while caused decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) due to exposure to THM. The co-administration of vit C with HM modulated the harmful effects of the insecticide on testicular, liver, and kidney parameters, which confirmed in histopathological examination of testis. Groups orally treated with vit C showed a significant increase in spermatogenesis, spermatid numbers, and the weight of seminal vesicles.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study showed the importance of vit C in reducing toxic effects from exposure to THM. Accordingly,<br>the intake of vit C by individuals who regularly handle this insecticide will be beneficial in reducing the adverse effects that may occur in the liver and kidney.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Subjective and objective observation of Tilapia skin as auto skin graft dressing in cats 2023-11-17T09:35:42+00:00 Erwin Erwin Etriwati Etriwati Sugito Sugito Hadi Mulki Satria <p><strong>Background</strong>: The recovery of auto skin graft is a dynamic and complex process that requires a suitable environment for vascularization as nutrition delivery to cells and donor skin reception.<br><strong>Aims</strong>: This research aimed to determine the effect of Tilapia skin dressing on the recovery of auto skin graft treatment<br>on domestic cats through subjective and objective observation.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Six male Indonesian local cats aged 1–2 years old weighing 3–4 kg were separated into two groups. The<br>surgical procedure was performed in a sterile and aseptic environment. The first surgery created wound defects on the<br>forelimb area 2 × 2 cm in size to whole groups. The wounds were left for 4 days and then treated with the following<br>treatments; Group I (G-I) was treated with Tilapia skin dressing, and Group II (G-II) was treated with moist dressing<br>Sofra-tulle®. The dressing of the two groups was replaced every 3 days and evaluated subjectively and objectively.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Subjective observation showed that skin was reddish (day 3), the bleeding test showed bleeding immediately<br>occurred after incision, and pain response was observed on day 6 post-surgery on both treatment groups showed<br>significantly differences with 95% confidence level (p &lt; 0.05). Objective observation in the form of NaCl 0.9% absorption and medicine effect on auto skin graft did not show a significant difference between the two treatment groups (p &gt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Auto skin graft treatment by moist dressing showed better healing, but Tilapia skin dressing can be an<br>alternative choice during auto skin graft treatment.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Antimicrobial efficacy of <i>Thymus vulgaris</i> extract against some <i>Staphylococcus</i> species isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in Basrah province, Iraq 2023-11-17T09:45:28+00:00 Abeer Laily Mohammed Wameedh Hashim Abbas Alqatrani Nawres Norri Jaber <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Thymus vulgaris</em> extracts can play a significant role as alternatives for antimicrobial agents against bovine <em>staphylococcus mastitis.</em></p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This research’s goal was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of an extract from T. vulgaris as an alternative to<br>antibiotics for bovine <em>Staphylococcus mastitis</em>. In addition, it is important to know the effect of the extraction methods<br>(hot alcoholic, cold alcoholic, and hot water extract) on their effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Two hundred ten cow milk samples from different areas of Basrah province had been suffering subclinical<br>mastitis reported by using the California mastitis test (CMT). Staphylococcus species were identified by conventional<br>microbiological technique, GP24 Kit, and nuc gene. Antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of <em>T. vulgaris</em> extracted (75, 50, 25) mg/ml with different methods of extraction (hot alcoholic, cold alcoholic, and hot water extract).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of 210 samples, 99 (47.1%) were positive for the CMT, and the identification rate of <em>Staphylococci spp.</em><br>by conventional microbiological technique and GP24 kit was 78 (78.8%). Out of 78 isolates of <em>Staphylococcus spp.</em> 48&nbsp; (61.5%) were identified as <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, by using both molecular techniques using PCR and miniaturized Kit&nbsp; GP24 and employing the miniature GP24, the remaining 30 (38.5%) were determined to be different species of&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Staphylococcus</em>. Antibacterial activity of various concentrations of <em>T. vulgaris</em> extracted (75, 50, 25) mg/ml with different&nbsp; methods of extraction revealed that hot alcoholic extract (100%) was more effective than cold alcoholic extract (66.7%),&nbsp; whereas there is no effect on the bacteria species with the hot water extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>Thymus vulgaris</em> extracts can&nbsp; play a significant role as alternatives for antimicrobial agents against bovine <em>staphylococcus mastitis.&nbsp;</em></p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The effect of body condition on alfaxalone induction dosage requirement in dogs 2023-11-17T10:01:28+00:00 Bartolome Rico Perez Cristina Parra Martinez Carolina Palacios Jimenez <p><strong>Background</strong>: Alfaxalone is commonly used in veterinary anesthesia for the induction of general anesthesia (GA) in dogs. However, it has been associated with dose-dependent cardiovascular depression. Therefore, the administration of&nbsp; liposoluble, intravenous (IV)-administered injectable induction agents, such as alfaxalone, is recommended to be based on the dog’s lean body mass (LBM).</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on IV alfaxalone dose requirements to achieve endotracheal intubation in dogs.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Prospective clinical study. A group of 34 dogs undergoing GA for diagnostic and/or surgical procedures, body&nbsp; weight (BW) &gt; 4 kg, BCS &gt; 2, age 1–14 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASAs) classification I–III. Dogs were&nbsp; allocated to two different groups according to their BCS: non-overweight group (NOW) BCS: 3–5 and over-weight group (OW) BCS: 6–9. All dogs were premedicated IV with methadone 0.2 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>, and anesthesia was induced by a slow IV&nbsp; infusion of alfaxalone at 1 mg kg<sup>−1</sup> minute<sup>−1</sup>, delivered with a syringe driver, until loss of jaw tone and no/minimal&nbsp; gagging reflex sufficient to allow endotracheal intubation was achieved. The total dose of alfaxalone and the occurrence&nbsp; of post-induction apnoea were recorded.<br>The Shapiro–Wilk test was performed to test for normality. A Chi-square test was performed to compare the incidence of&nbsp; post-induction apnoea between groups, and the Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare the induction dose of alfaxalone between groups. A p-value &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean dose ±&nbsp; standard deviation of alfaxalone in NOW was 2.18 ± 0.59 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>, and in OW, it was 1.63 ± 0.26 mg kg<sup>−1</sup> (p = 0.002). The&nbsp; sedation score did not differ between groups. Postinduction apnoea (PIA) occurred in 6 of 17 animals in NOW and 15 of&nbsp; 17 in OW (p = 0.002).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The dose of IV alfaxalone per kg of total body mass required to achieve endotracheal&nbsp; intubation was lower in overweight dogs, suggesting that LBM should be considered when calculating IV anesthetic&nbsp; doses. The incidence of post-induction apnoea was higher in overweight/obese dogs with alfaxalone administered at a&nbsp; rate of 1 mg kg<sup>−1</sup> minute<sup>− 1</sup></p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Equine conjunctival haemangiosarcoma: Clinical presentation, management, and outcome of seven cases in the United Kingdom 2023-11-17T10:09:13+00:00 Andrea Kashani-Carver Conor O'Halloran Emma Scurrell Heidi Featherstone Felipe Ferreira de Freitas Robert Lowe <p><strong>Background</strong>: Only 27 cases of equine conjunctival haemangiosarcoma have been reported in the literature over the past 37 years. Out of these, 22% of cases were lost to follow-up, 52% were euthanized, and 26% survived. A scarcity of cases and information is available for this rarely seen conjunctival tumour.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of conjunctival hemangiosarcoma in seven horses in the UK.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Optivet medical records were reviewed for equine cases seen or advised on with a histopathological diagnosis&nbsp; of conjunctival haemangiosarcoma between January 2013 and March 2023. Medical records were accessed for&nbsp; details of signalment, history, management, and follow-up. Histopathology was used to confirm the diagnosis of haemangiosarcoma and assess the surgical margins. Immunohistochemistry was performed in a minority of cases with poorly differentiated solid tumours to support vascular lineage.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Seven eyes from seven horses (five geldings&nbsp; and two mares) with a mean age of 16 years and median of 18 years (range 10–21 years) met the criteria.&nbsp; Serosanguinous discharge was seen in six eyes. All eyes were managed surgically; 4 by exenteration and 3 by&nbsp; conjunctivectomy/keratectomy. Adjunctive cryotherapy was performed in two eyes. Metastatic disease in the ipsilateral&nbsp; parotid salivary gland, confirmed with histopathology, was seen in one horse. Surgical margins were clear in all but one&nbsp; eye. Solar elastosis was noted in five eyes. All horses were healthy at the last follow-up (0.2–5 years, mean 2.9 years, and&nbsp; median 2 years).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Equine conjunctival haemangiosarcoma is rare. Serosanguinous ocular discharge is a&nbsp; common clinical sign. Early surgical excision is highly effective. Solar elastosis is a common histopathological feature,&nbsp; suggesting a role for UV-light in the pathogenesis.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Diagnosis, management, and outcome of an intralenticular foreign body in a dog: A case report 2023-11-17T10:16:57+00:00 Andrea Kashani-Carver Gemma Turner Gisela Escalada Caliz Amna Salih Casey Jordan Prado Cebrian Robert Lowe <p><strong>Background</strong>: Intra-lenticular foreign bodies are rare in veterinary medicine and uncommon in human medicine. Approximately 50% of perforating ocular injuries in canines have lenticular involvement. Treatment choices include conservative management and surgical options. Retained intra-lenticular foreign body with delayed removal has not been reported in animals.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 3-year-old male neutered Lurcher presented with right-sided ocular discomfort and a sealed&nbsp; fullthickness corneal perforation. The full ophthalmic examination could not be performed at the initial presentation due to miosis. Recrudescence of anterior uveitis was seen post-drug cessation. Re-evaluation of the eye with a mydriatic pupil revealed an intra-lenticular foreign body. Surgical removal via phacoemulsification was performed 8 weeks after the initial perforating injury. The eye remains visual, comfortable, and normotensive 50 months post-operatively.&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>Conclusion</strong>: This is the first report of an encapsulated, retained intra-lenticular foreign body with delayed removal in a&nbsp; dog. Mydriasis and repeat examinations are of crucial importance when evaluating eyes post-perforation.&nbsp;</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023