Open Veterinary Journal 2021-11-23T13:30:59+00:00 Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Open Journal Systems <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever in domestic ruminants in Tunisia underlines the need for effective surveillance 2021-11-16T17:14:53+00:00 Jihene Hellal Selma Mejri Sandra Lacote Soufien Sghaier Abderrazek Dkhil Elena Arsevska Didier Calavas Viviane Hénaux Philippe Marianneau Salah Hammami <p><strong>Background</strong>: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an infectious zoonotic disease infecting, mainly, domestic ruminants and causing significant economic and public health problems. RVF is a vector-borne disease transmitted by mosquitoes.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: In this work, we tried to seek any RVF virus circulation in Tunisia.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Thus, we investigated 1,723 sera from different parts of Tunisia, collected in 2009 and 2013–2015 from sheep, goats, cattle, and dromedaries. All sera were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Eighty-seven sera were detected positive and 11 doubtful. All of them were investigated by the virusneutralization technique (VNT), which confirmed the positivity of three sera.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This is the first case of RVF seropositive confirmed by the VNT in Tunisian ruminants. Such a result was expected considering the climate, entomology, and geographic location of the country. Further investigations must enhance our findings to understand the RVF epidemiologic situation better and implement risk-based surveillance programs and effective control strategies.</p> 2021-11-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A retrospective study of 14 dogs with advanced heart failure treated with loop diuretics and hydrochlorothiazide 2021-11-16T17:25:04+00:00 Koji Iwanaga1 Ryuji Araki Mitsuhiro Isaka <p><strong>Background</strong>: The use of thiazide diuretics is recommended in the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine guidelines for advanced heart failure due to mitral insufficiency (MI) in dogs. However, there are no large-scale reports of the use of thiazide diuretics in dogs with advanced heart failure.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This retrospective study evaluated the therapeutic effect of concomitant hydrochlorothiazide (HTCZ) with loop diuretics in dogs with heart failure.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The study included 14 dogs diagnosed with advanced pulmonary edema with MI at two facilities. In all cases, high-dose loop diuretics (torsemide; 0.78–4mg/kg/day) did not improve pulmonary edema. The results of the echocardiography and renal function tests before and after the administration of HTCZ (0.2–0.84 mg/kg/day) in addition to torsemide were statistically compared.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The echocardiographic data demonstrated significant improvement in relation to cardiac stress; left atrium to the aorta ratio, normalized left ventricular internal dimension in diastole, and E wave velocity (m/s) after HTCZ administration. However, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels increased, and potassium levels decreased, indicating a decline in renal function following HTCZ administration.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study suggests that the administration of HTCZ in combination with loop diuretics may be beneficial during advanced heart failure due to MI in dogs. The results can also be extended to patients who are resistant to loop diuretics, resulting in the improvement of cardiac function. However, as the combination of HTCZ and loop diureticscan deteriorate renal function, caution should be exercised prior to making recommendations regarding its use, and renal function should be monitored.</p> 2021-11-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The potential anti-African swine fever virus effects of medium chain fatty acids on <i>in vitro</i> feed model: An evaluation study using epidemic ASFV strain circulating in Vietnam 2021-11-14T17:28:00+00:00 Ha Thi Thanh Tran Anh Duc Truong Duc Viet Ly Tuan Van Hoang Nhu Thi Chu Huyen Thi Nguyen Anh Thi Kieu Dang Maartje De Vos Kobe Lannoo Geert Bruggeman Hoang Vu Dang <p>Background: African swine fever (ASF) is an important disease affecting swine and has a significant economic loss in both the developed and developing world.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: In this study, we evaluated the potential effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) in individual and synergistic<br>forms to prevent and/or reduce ASF virus (ASFV) infection using in vitro feed model.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The cytotoxicity of MCFAs on porcine alveolar macrophages cells was evaluated by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The potential effects of MCFAs, including C8 (caprylic acid), C8-C6-C10 (caprylic acid-caproic acid-capric acid; 1:1:1 ratio) and C8-C10-C12 (caprylic acid-capric acid-lauric acid; 1:1:1 ratio) against a field ASFV strain isolated in the capital Hanoi of Vietnam, were further examined by real-time PCR and haemadsorption assays in in vitro feed model.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Our results indicated that all tested products do not induce cytotoxicity at the dose of 100 μg/ml and are suitable for further in vitro examination. These products have shown a strong antiviral effect against ASFV infectivity at doses of 0.375% and 0.5%. Interestingly, the synergistic MCFAs have shown clearly their potential activities against ASFV in which at a lower dose of 0.25%, pre-treatment with product two and three induced significant increases at the level of Cq value when compared to positive control and/or product 1 (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). However, the viral titre was not changed after 24 hours post-inoculation when compared to positive control. Our findings suggested that all tested products, both individual and synergistic forms of MCFAs, have possessed a strong anti-ASFV effect, and this effect is dose-dependence in <em>in vitro</em> feed model. Additionally, synergistic effects of MCFAs are more effective against ASFV when compared to individual forms.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Together, the findings in this study indicate that MCFAs, both individual and synergistic forms, inhibit against a field ASFV strain in the feed model, which may support minimizing the risk of ASF transmission in the pig population. Further studies focusing on in vivo anti-ASFV effects of MCFAs are important to bring new insight into the mode of ASFV-reduced action by these compounds in swine feed.</p> 2021-11-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Fundamental role of <i>Lactobacillus plantarum</i> and inulin in improving safety and quality of Karish cheese 2021-11-15T05:40:28+00:00 Ola W. Hegab Eman F. Abdel-Latif Hamdy M.B.A. Zaki Ashraf A. Moawad <p><strong>Background</strong>: Karish cheese manufactured traditionally from raw milk may harbor many biological health hazards.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> Production of safe pasteurized Karish cheese with improved sensory characteristics using probiotics and<br>prebiotics (synbiotic Karish cheese).<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Laboratory Karish cheese was made to study the effect of<em> Lactobacillus plantarum</em> with and without inulin on cheese quality. Treatments were examined for sensory, chemical, and microbial quality, shelf life, and survival of<em> L.</em><br><em>plantarum</em> were also monitored. The antimicrobial effect of<em> L. plantarum</em> and inulin against <em>Enterobacter aerogenes </em>in cheese was evaluated.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Sensory, chemical, and microbial quality of Karish cheese supplemented with <em>L. plantarum</em> and inulin were<br>positively affected; moreover, the shelf life was extended up to 28 days. Karish cheese contained <em>L. plantarum</em> showed<br>the highest flavor score, while treatment contained both <em>L. plantarum</em> and inulin attained the best body and texture<br>score. Moreover, <em>L. plantarum</em> and inulin significantly reduced <em>E. aerogenes</em> count during Karish cheese chilled<br>storage; the reduction log reached 3.76 log<sub>10</sub>cfu/g on the seventh day of storage compared to control. Additionally,<br>Inulin significantly increased the survival of <em>L. plantarum</em> throughout the storage period.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concluded that using probiotics and prebiotics in Karish cheese synergistically improved its<br>sensory properties, safety, and hygienic quality.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus schleiferi</i> subspecies <i>coagulans</i> associated with otitis externa and pyoderma in dogs 2021-11-15T05:54:22+00:00 Joel André Palomino- Farfán Luis Guillermo Alvarez Vega Sonia Yenny Calle Espinoza Sofia Gonzales Magallanes Juan José Siuce Moreno <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dermatological infections are the most common cases in the daily pet clinic. Since its discovery in 1990, <em>Staphylococcus schleiferi</em> subspecies coagulans have been reported more frequently in canine otitis externa and pyoderma and even in cases of zoonoses.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> Detect the presence of <em>S. schleiferi</em> subsp. coagulans of canine otitis externa and pyoderma, its antimicrobial resistance, and the presence of mecAgen.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Three-hundred-thirty-one swabs from dogs with otitis externa and pyoderma were cultured on bacteriological agar for bacterial isolation and subsequent biochemical and molecular identification. The identified <em>S. schleiferi</em> subsp. <em>coagulans</em> were evaluated for their antimicrobial susceptibility using the Kirby–Bauer technique, including an oxacillin disk, and subsequently, a PCR was run to identify which ones had the m<em>ec</em>A gene.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Thirty-four (22.97%) and twelve (6.56%) isolates were identified as <em>S. schleiferi</em> subspecies<em> coagulans</em> from otitis externa and pyoderma, respectively. Fluoroquinolones, the most widely used group of antibiotics in Peru, showed<br>a susceptibility of 58.82% (20/34) in cases of otitis externa and 50% (6/12) in cases of canine pyoderma. Meanwhile, nitrofurantoin was the antibiotic with the best efficacy in both cases, with 97% (33/34) in otitis externa and 83% (10/12) in pyoderma. Furthermore, 40% (13/34) of <em>S. schleiferi</em> subsp. coagulans isolated from otitis externa were resistant to methicillin, and 85.29% (29/34) had the <em>mec</em>A gene. On the other hand, the only methicillin-resistant isolate from pyoderma was also the only one with a <em>mec</em>A gene.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study is the first report of <em>S. schleiferi</em> subsp. <em>coagulans</em> in Peru, finding a higher percentage than reported in other South American countries.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Retrospective and prospective study of progressive retinal atrophy in dogs presented to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Parana, Brazil 2021-11-15T13:36:57+00:00 Henrique M. Freitas André T. Somma Bret A. Moore Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira <p><strong>Background</strong>: Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is one of the main causes of blindness in dogs. Despite its clinical importance, there is limited epidemiological information available, particularly in South America.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The main objective of this study was to perform a retrospective, and prospective analysis of PRA in dogs<br>admitted at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Medical records of dogs admitted between 2014 and 2018 were selected through the archives of the<br>Comparative Ophthalmology Laboratory. A total of 130 dogs with medical records indicating clinical signs suggestive<br>of PRA, independent of the electroretinography confirmation, were selected. In order to investigate common<br>characteristics, each patient’s clinical history, ophthalmic examination, and visual status were reviewed (obstacle<br>course, pupillary light reflex, dazzle reflex, visual tracking to a cotton ball, and menace responses). Additionally, a<br>prospective study was performed, where flash electroretinography was performed on 30 animals with clinical signs suggestive of PRA, and 14 animals were selected for fundus photography. Data were assessed through descriptive and inferential statistics.<br><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 2,055 dogs were evaluated between January 2014 and December 2018. Of those, 130 animals were presumptively diagnosed with PRA (6.33%), consisting of 18 different breeds and 27 dogs with a mixed pedigree.<br>Poodles were the most prevalent breed (n = 26; 20.00%), followed by Cocker Spaniels (n = 19; 14.62%). In the reported caseload, Pomeranians showed a considerably higher odds ratio for PRA development (15.36%).&nbsp;<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Pomeranians presented a high odds ratio, suggesting that further studies may be performed with breeds with a high potential for developing this disease.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Surgical management of bilateral ear pinna lesions associated with traumatic aural hematoma in a 3-day-old goat kid 2021-11-16T17:31:54+00:00 Panagiotis D. Katsoulos Anna Dedousi <p><strong>Background:</strong> Aural hematomas are not uncommon in ruminants’ clinical practice; however, there is a lack of information regarding their management in newborn ruminants, especially for complicated cases with rupture of the hematoma and secondary ear pinna necrosis.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 3-day-old orphan goat kid was admitted due to swelling on the left ear pinna and trauma on the right pina caused by biting by other goats. The swelling on the left ear which was located at the convex surface was soft, painless, and fluid-filled, suggestive of aural hematoma located at the convex surface. The right pinna was swollen, bleeding, and extremely painful at palpation. The skin was necrotized at the distal 2/3rd of the convex surface and the 1/2 of the concave surface. Underneath the necrotized skin of the convex surface, blood, and blood clots were trapped, and there was a pocket between the remaining normal skin and the cartilage indicating possible rupture of aural hematoma. The kid was surgically treated under general anesthesia with xylazine and ketamine. The aural hematoma was drained by the convex surface using a Penrose tube after flushing the cavity with 2 mg dexamethasone. The trauma of the right pinna was left to heal by secondary intention after resection of all necrotized, edematous tissues, and blood clots. Post-surgery, the animal was treated with parenteral antibiotic administration and daily application of a topical antiseptic solution. The Penrose tube was removed after 5 days, and the animal recovered uneventfully.<br><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present case indicates that aural hematoma can occur in newborn goat kids secondary to ear pinna iting and might evolve to pinna necrosis. In addition, tube drainage after flushing the cavity with corticosteroids appears to be an effective treatment approach without requiring bandaging post-operatively.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Electrochemotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous solid tumors in equids: A retrospective study 2021-11-15T13:57:25+00:00 Enrico P. Spugnini Licia Scacco Carlo Bolaffio Alfonso Baldi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) promotes the increased uptake of antitumor agents through the administration of permeabilizing electric pulses, thus enhancing chemotherapy effectiveness.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: Our study aimed to describe the tolerability and efficacy of ECT alone or in association with surgery to manage solid neoplasms in equids.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Medical records of equids with a diagnosis of malignant tumors treated with ECT alone or in combination<br>with surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Each equid received local treatment within the tumors or the tumors’ bed with cisplatin at the dose of 0.5 mg/cm². Trains of permeabilizing biphasic electric pulses were then applied under spinal or general anesthesia.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Sixteen equids were enrolled in this study. There were nine melanoma cases, four fibrosarcoma, and three<br>squamous cell carcinoma. Of those 16 equids, 7 received ECT for treatment of intraoperative local disease, while in 9<br>cases, ECT was the only treatment modality. The seven equids treated with the combination of ECT and surgery still<br>have no evidence of disease at different times ranging from 9 to 60 months. The remaining nine had the following responses: two complete remissions, five partial responses, one stable disease, and one progressive disease. The treatment was well-tolerated, and local side effects were minimal. No systemic effects were documented.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This retrospective study suggests that ECT may be beneficial for equids with solid neoplasms and could be<br>a useful addition to the current therapeutic options considering its low cost, limited toxicity, and ease of administration</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of timolol maleate eye drops on experimentally dilated cardiomyopathy and healthy rabbits 2021-11-15T14:13:15+00:00 Mitsuhiro Isaka Reimi Hayashida Yuumi Tamashima Ryuji Araki <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most frequently diagnosed cardiomyopathy in rabbits. Timolol maleate (nonselective beta-blockers), which reduces the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure, has been used for glaucoma. However, this effect has not been assessed in a rabbit DCM model.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the circulatory effects of 0.5% timolol maleate eye drops on rabbit DCM models.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Rabbits were randomly divided into healthy <em>(n</em> = 8) and DCM rabbits (<em>n</em> = 8). Rabbit DCM models were established through intravenous administration of daunorubicin (4 mg/kg/week), an anthracycline anticancer drug, for 6 weeks. We measured the HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and echocardiography before (pre) and at 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after timolol maleate administration.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops significantly reduced the HR at 10, 30, and 60 minutes in DCM models and 10 minutes in healthy rabbits; however, there were no alterations in MAP. There was a significant fraction shortening elevation at 10 and 120 minutes in DCM models; moreover, there were marked ejection fraction elevations at all measurement points in only DCM models.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Timolol maleate eye drops exert several effects on the circulatory system in rabbit DCM models and healthy rabbits.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Enhancement of natural killer cell activity by oral administration of a fermented soybean product in dogs 2021-11-17T05:38:05+00:00 Shoma Mikawa Akira Matsuda Yasuyuki Kamemori Satoru Asanuma Hitoshi Kitagawa <p><strong>Background</strong>: Probiotics are known for their ability to enhance cellular immunity, including the activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Natto is a Japanese traditional probiotic food made by fermenting soybean with bacteria <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> var. <em>natto</em>. Components of natto include spores of <em>B. subtilis natto</em>, poly-<em>γ</em>-glutamic acid, and levan, which have demonstrated their immunoadjuvant and anti-allergic<br>effects through various<em> in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> studies. However, it remains unclear whether oral administration of natto can modulate the immune activity in animals.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of natto on the immune system of dogs.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Eight dogs were randomly divided into two groups: a natto-treated group and an untreated group. The dogs in the natto-treated group were fed with 10 g/head/day of a freeze-dried natto product in addition to a usual amount of regular dry food for 14 days, whereas the dogs in the untreated group were fed with the regular dry food alone. To<br>determine cellular immune activity, the cell surface antigen analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and cytotoxicity analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were carried out before and after the natto administration period. Additionally, a relative expression of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood monocytes after the introduction of antigen-stimulation was also examined.<br><strong>Results</strong>: At the end of the administration period, a proportion of NK cells (CD<sup>3−</sup> CD<sup>5−</sup> CD<sup>21−</sup> cells and CD<sup>3+</sup> CD<sup>5dim </sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> cells) in peripheral blood lymphocytes were found to be significantly increased, and the cytotoxic effect of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells on canine tumor cells were greatly enhanced in the natto-treated group, but not in the untreated group. The expression of TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following an antigen-stimulation was increased considerably in the dogs after administration of natto.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: We conclude that oral administration of natto activated the cytotoxic activity of peripheral NK cells in dogs, and a daily intake of natto might be helpful in augmenting cellular immune activity.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Kaliandra honey improves testosterone levels, diameter and epithelial thickness of seminiferous tubule of white rat (<i>Rattus norvegicus</i>) due to malnutrition through stimulation of HSP70 2021-11-17T05:47:18+00:00 Nefranindy Rahma Wurlina Wurlina Srii Pantja Madyawati Budi Utomo Tatik Hernawati Erma Safitri <p><strong>Background</strong>: Malnutrition can cause an increase in oxidative stress as it triggers the expression of heat shock protein70 (HSP70), a chaperon molecule that is needed to repair damaged cells within optimal levels. Honey is a source of feed that can stimulate HSP70 expression, which can be given to the malnourished in the animal trial.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study was to prove that Kaliandra honey can improve testosterone levels, diameter, and epithelial thickness of the seminiferous tubule of rat testes (Rattus norvegicus) due to malnutrition through stimulation of HSP70, which is expressed immunohistochemically.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This study used 40 male rats, which were divided into four treatment groups: T0 (negative control): normal rats and not given honey; T1 (positive control): malnourished rats and not given honey; T2 (treatment 2): malnourished rats and given 30% Kaliandra honey (v/v) for 10 days; T3 (treatment 3), malnourished rats and given 50% Kaliandra honey (v/v) for 10 days. The condition of malnutrition is carried out by fasting the feed for five consecutive days resulting in damage to the male reproductive organs, especially the testes.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that Kaliandra honey at a dose of 50% (v/v) had a significant effect in improving testosterone levels, diameter, and epithelial thickness of seminiferous tubule of malnourished male rats through stimulation of HSP70 expression. The HSP70 expression scores by IHC at T0, T1, T2, and T3 were 0.15<sup>a</sup> ± 0.5, 3.15<sup>c </sup>± 0.4, 2.95<sup>c</sup> ± 0.35, and 1.75<sup>b</sup> ± 0.15, sequentially. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indirect testosterone levels at T0, T1, T2, and T3 (in μg/dl) were 36.39<sup>c</sup> ± 0.35, 6.12<sup>a</sup> ± 0.51, 7.45<sup>a</sup> ± 0.15, 25.27<sup>b</sup> ± 0.63, sequentially. The diameter and epithelial thickness of the seminiferous tubule of the testes (in μm) in the four treatments T0, T1, T2, and T3 were 362.40<sup>c</sup> ± 4.71, 248.46<sup>a</sup> ± 3.90, 255.22<sup>a</sup> ± 2.34, 318.37<sup>b</sup> ± 4.23 and 117.60<sup>d</sup> ± 11.30, 3.86<sup>a</sup> ± 1.57, 9.72<sup>b</sup> ± 3.96, 29.84<sup>c </sup>± 4.02 sequentially.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The conclusion of the study showed that Kaliandra honey at a dose of 50% (v/v) had a significant effect in improving testosterone levels, diameter, and epithelial thickness of the seminiferous tubule of malnourished rats through stimulation of HSP70, although not significantly the same as negative control (T0).</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Vitamin D mitigates adult onset diseases in male and female mice induced by early-life exposure to endocrine disruptor BPA 2021-11-15T16:51:16+00:00 Mohamed A. Al-Griw Zohour M. Marwan Ismail M. Hdud Taher Shaibi <p><strong>Background:</strong> During early development, environmental compounds can induce adult onset diseases and disrupt the<br>circulating vitamin D (VitD) levels.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to examine the protective role of VitD against the adverse effects of BPA on male and female mice.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 60 male and female Swiss Albino mice (3 weeks old) were randomly divided into 5 groups; each consisted of 12 mice (6 males and 6 females) and was treated as follows: Group I received no treatment (sham control); Group II, sterile corn oil only (vehicle control); Group III, BPA (400 μg/kg); Group IV, VitD (2,195 IU/kg); and Group V, BPA + VitD. At 10.5 weeks, the animals were sacrificed to conduct histological examinations.<br><strong>Results</strong>: BPA-exposed mice were found to have neurobehavioral abnormalities, heart, kidney, and lung diseases with increased apoptotic indices in both sexes. On the other hand, the treatment of BPA mice with VitD altered this scenario with modulated motor activity, enhanced body and organ weights, and preserved the heart, kidney, and lung architecture, alongside a decreased percent apoptotic index.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our findings illustrate that VitD protects mice against BPA-induced heart, kidney, and lung abnormalities.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Mean seeds, migrating plant awns embedded in a miniature poodle’s bladder wall 2021-11-15T16:58:26+00:00 Kathleen Graham Lomax <p><strong>Background</strong>: Intramural bladder foreign bodies resulting from migration of grass awns have rarely been described<br>in the veterinary literature. Surgical removal should be considered the treatment of choice for symptomatic lesions.<br><strong>Case Description:</strong> A clinical case of a miniature poodle with increased urination and progressive hypoechoic mural nodules on repeat bladder ultrasound is described. An exploratory bladder surgery with excision of the two lesions was performed, allowing the extraction of a plant foreign body from the bladder wall.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This is among the first cases in the veterinary literature in which a grass awn has been surgically extracted<br>from the wall of the bladder in a dog. Differential diagnosis of intramural bladder lesions in dogs should include lesions caused by migratory plant awn foreign bodies.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Dystocia and cesarean section in a free-ranging ocelot (<i>Leopardus pardalis</i>) after traumatic spinal cord injury resulting from dog (<i>Canis familiaris</i>) attack 2021-11-23T13:30:59+00:00 Eduardo Alfonso Díaz Carolina Sáenz Gilberto Segnini Andrés Villagómez Ramiro F. Díaz Rebecca Zug <p><strong>Background</strong>: Ex situ breeding programs are essential to establish genetic resource banks and produce offspring to<br>strengthen the in situ conservation of endangered species. However, many programs fail to maintain viable ex situ<br>populations due to reproductive problems, including dystocia in pregnant females. Dystocia encompasses different emergency obstetric situations for the lives of dams and fetuses that require urgent intervention. This condition has been studied in domesticated species but published records in wildlife, specifically in felines species, are scarce.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: An adult female ocelot (<em>Leopardus pardalis</em>) was referred to the wildlife hospital of the Universidad San Francisco de Quito after being attacked by dogs (<em>Canis familiaris</em>). Neurological tests revealed traumatic spinal cord injury at a thoracolumbar level. Complementary tests (laboratory exams, radiographs, and ultrasound) revealed a full-term pregnancy, failure in the labor progress, and critical fetal stress. A cesarean section was performed, and the newborns received resuscitation care after assessing their viability using the Apgar score system. The neonate with the lowest Apgar score died within the first hour after birth, while the second one showed an increase in Apgar score after resuscitation care and survived the procedure.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: We provide new obstetric data that could be relevant to save the lives of dams and newborns in related<br>cases for ocelots and other species of wild felids. Furthermore, this study confirms the adverse effects that domestic dogs have on wildlife species.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) An unusual case of traumatic dorsolateral sacral hernia with retroflexion of the urinary bladder in a cat 2021-11-23T13:28:25+00:00 Çağrı Gültekin Gül Çıray Akbaş Deniz Seyrek-İntaş <p><strong>Background</strong>: Perineal hernias are rarely seen in cats and can be caused by congenital or trauma. The urinary bladder is the most herniated organ and was being observed in prepubic, ventral perineal, umbilical, or caudoventral abdominal regions.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 1-year-old female domestic short-haired cat was presented to the Animal Hospital of the Near East University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine with complaints of urinary retention as well as the inability to defecate. The patient owner reported that the cat had been struck by a car around 4 months previously, which resulted in a pelvic fracture. On clinical examination, a fluctuating mass was detected in the dorso-lateral region of the pelvis. After<br>radiographic and ultrasonographic examination, the mass was diagnosed as the urinary bladder. A cystopexy operation was performed on the urinary bladder, which herniated through a muscular tear to the right dorsolateral pelvic region.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Unusual case report of a sacral hernia resulting from a traumatic rupture of the sacral muscles together with urinary bladder retroflexion was reported in a cat.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Acquired myasthenia gravis with concurrent polymyositis and myocarditis secondary to a thymoma in a dog 2021-11-17T05:49:55+00:00 Raffaella Perillo Marika Menchetti Pasquale A. Giannuzzi Angela Marchiori Marco Rondena Stefania Gasparini <p><strong>Background</strong>: Canine thymomas are associated with multiple paraneoplastic syndromes, among which myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common. Acquired MG is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (ACHRs). ACHRs antibodies are the most commonly formed, but the production of antistriational antibodies binding to skeletal and cardiac muscle proteins has also been recorded both in humans and dogs. An association between the occurrence of antistriational antibodies and a severe form of myocarditis, giant cell myocarditis, has been described in humans.<br><strong>Case Description:</strong> A 4-year-old mixed-breed dog was referred because of 1 month history of exercise-induced weakness, hypersalivation, and regurgitation. The neurologic examination was indicative of a neuromuscular junction disease, and MG was suspected. A computed tomographic scan examination showed the presence of a megaoesophagus and a thymic mass. Serum antibodies against ACHRs confirmed the diagnosis of MG. Treatment with pyridostigmine was started, and the thymic mass was surgically excised, and a diagnosis of thymoma was confirmed by histology. 24 hours after surgery, the dog developed a third-degree atrioventricular block. Severe arrhythmia and increased troponin serum levels suggested myocarditis which rapidly led to cardiopulmonary arrest. Histopathologic examination of the heart, esophagus and diaphragm revealed a lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration, consistent with myocarditis and polymyositis. Scattered rare giant multinucleated cells were also detected in the myocardium.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> To the author’s knowledge, this is the first report of thymoma-associated MG with concurrent polymyositis and giant cell-like myocarditis in a dog.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Bilateral cataracts extraction by lens aspiration and foldable intraocular lens implantation in a black kite (<i>iMilvus migrans</i>) 2021-11-17T05:51:28+00:00 Natthanet Sritrakoon Kaset Sutasha Chaiyan Kasorndorkbua Winyu Karntip Noppasin Jindawattana Aree Thayananuphat <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cataract is a common disease in the lenses of birds. Cataract surgery is the recommended treatment for birds with visual impairment. Nevertheless, reports of the results of cataract surgery in birds are limited.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: An unknown-aged male black kite (<em>Milvus migrans</em>) was presented to Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital to evaluate and treat bilateral ocular cloudiness. Bilateral hypermature cataracts were diagnosed. A-scan biometry was carried out to calculate the intraocular lens’ (IOL) diopter power. Bilateral cataract extraction by lens aspiration with +17.5 diopter foldable IOL implantation was successfully completed. Two months after surgery, the black kite navigated well and could fly and catch his food. Retinoscopy at 4 months postoperative revealed −0.5 diopters OD, whereas OS could not be assessed due to a poor reflection. Follow-up at 3 years after surgery, the black kite’s vision remained favorable.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were successful in this black kite because the black kite’s vision was noticeably improved, and the black kite was able to navigate well. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral cataract surgery with IOL implantation using a calculated dioptric power (+17.5 D) IOL in a black kite.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) HDAC2/3 inhibitor MI192 mitigates oligodendrocyte loss and reduces microglial activation upon injury: A potential role of epigenetics 2021-11-17T05:53:12+00:00 Mohamed A. Al-Griw Mansur E. Shmela Mohamed M. Elhensheri Emad M. Bennour <p><strong>Background</strong>: During development, oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells are susceptible to injury, leading to life-long clinical neurodevelopmental deficits, which lack effective treatments. Drugs targeting epigenetic modifications that inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) protect from many clinical neurodegenerative disorders.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase 2/3 (HDAC2/3) inhibitor MI192 on white matter (WM) pathology in a model of neonatal rat brain injury.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Wistar rats (8.5-day-old, <em>n</em> = 32) were used to generate brain tissues. The tissues were cultured and then randomly divided into four groups and treated as following: group I (sham); the tissues were cultured under normoxia, group II (vehicle); DMSO only, group III (injury, INJ); the tissues were exposed to 20 minutes oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) insult, and group IV (INJ + MI192); the tissues were subjected to the OGD insult and then treated with the MI192 inhibitor. On culture day 10, the tissues were fixed for biochemical and histological examinations.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that inhibition of HDAC2/3 activity alleviated WM pathology. Specifically, MI192 treatment significantly reduced cell death, minimized apoptosis, and mitigates the loss of the MBP<sup>+</sup> OLs and their precursors (NG<sub>2</sub> <sup>+</sup> OPCs). Additionally, MI192 decreased the density of reactive microglia (OX−42<sup>+</sup>). These findings demonstrate that the inhibition of HDAC2/3 activity post-insult alleviates WM pathology through mechanism(s) including preserving OL lineage cells and suppressing microglial activation.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of this study suggest that HDAC2/3 inhibition is a rational strategy to preserve WM or reverse its pathology upon newborn brain injury.</p> 2021-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Flea and tick treatment satisfaction, preference, and adherence reported by cat owners in the US, UK, or France who treated their cats with transdermal fluralaner 2021-11-17T05:54:37+00:00 Robert Philip Lavan Robert Armstrong Hannah Newbury Dorothy Normile Celine Hubinois <p><strong>Background:</strong> Fluralaner (Bravecto®) is an isoxazoline class compound that is the only topically applied systemic ectoparasiticide approved for dosing at up to 12-week intervals for flea and tick control in cats.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: To describe veterinarian recommendations for ectoparasiticide medications used in the UK and France along with veterinary recommendations previously reported from the US, as well as to assess cat owners’ experience with a commercial transdermal spot-on fluralaner formulation administered to cats in the US and similarly describe the experiences of cat owners from the UK or France who administered fluralaner for feline flea and tick prevention.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Clients of participating veterinary practices in the US, UK, or France who were visiting the clinic for a routine wellness visit, were currently treating their cat with fluralaner (Bravecto®), and had purchased at least two doses were asked to complete a short two-page survey about their experience with flea and tick medications including fluralaner and other products they may have been administered.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Owners in the US (451 cats), UK (512 cats), and France (520 cats) completed surveys. Most cat owners (66%–75%) had previously administered other flea and tick products. More than 94% of cat owners surveyed in each country were satisfied or very satisfied with fluralaner. The most frequently reported benefit of using fluralaner was the 12-week dosing interval, selected by 76% of respondents in the US, 82% in the UK, and 70% in France. 79%–88% of cat owners (depending on the country) thought that dosing with extended duration fluralaner was more convenient than dosing with monthly flea and tick products and 86%–89% of cat owners that had used other flea and tick products preferred fluralaner over the other flea and tick products.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Veterinarians in the US, UK, and France recommended 12 months of flea protection and 9–11 months of tick protection per year, even though, in this study, cat owners usually purchased 1–3 months of protection per year. A longer flea and tick dosing interval, as seen with fluralaner, correlates with higher user satisfaction and preference among cat owners. Owners identified the 12-week dosing interval and single dose efficacy as the top reasons for selecting the fluralaner product for their cat. In all three countries, most cat owners indicated that they were more likely to deliver doses of extended duration fluralaner on time, compared to flea and tick products dosed monthly.</p> 2021-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Findings suggestive of coronary microvascular dysfunction in cats with myocardial ischemia 2021-11-17T05:57:37+00:00 Guillermo Belerenian Pablo Alejandro Donati Cristian Daniel Rodriguez Victor Castillo Juan Manuel Guevara Claudia Pucheta Sergio Ferraris Roberto Walter Israel Olivares <p><strong>Background</strong>: Myocardial infarction (MI) is an important cause of death and disability among humans worldwide. Few studies have reported the occurrence of MI in small animals as well. Reports in human medicine indicate that up to 30% of patients with clinical signs compatible with myocardial ischemia suggestive of coronary disease exhibit normal epicardial arteries at angiography. These symptoms have been associated with a syndrome characterized by alterations in cardiac microvasculature, known as coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD).<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to describe the necropsy findings and clinical-pathological characterization (when available) of cats with histopathological findings suggesting CMD.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Necropsy records of cats presenting histopathological diagnosis compatible with acute and/or chronic MI, with normal epicardial arteries and microvascular disorders were evaluated.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Twenty animals met the inclusion criteria. Eight cats (40%) exhibited findings compatible with mild hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) without left atrial enlargement, one (5%) presented restrictive cardiomyopathy, and another one (5%) had lesions consistent with histiocytoid cardiomyopathy. The remaining cats (50%) showed alterations compatible with severe HCM with left atrial enlargement. In all cases, epicardial arteries were normal (without obstruction). All the evaluated hearts exhibited myocardial multifocal fibrosis along with replacement of cardiomyocytes by adipose tissue and blood vessels with hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the muscular layer with protrusion of the nuclei of the endothelial cells.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These findings suggest the presence of microvascular dysplasia of the coronary arteries. Further studies are necessary to confirm and clinically characterize these results.</p> 2021-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Dosage variability of veterinary drug products, containing furosemide, linked to tablet splitting 2021-11-16T15:49:28+00:00 Lauretta Maggi Valeria Friuli Paola Perugini Giorgio Musitelli Luigi Venco <p><strong>Background</strong>: Furosemide is a potent diuretic drug widely used to treat congestive heart failure in dogs and cats,<br>but it shows remarkable variability in bioavailability and efficacy when administered orally. In particular, a different<br>diuretic effect can be detected after repeated administrations of the same medicinal product in the same animal. For this reason, we investigate the possible reasons for this peculiar behavior. Drug products for veterinary andhuman use are compared in terms of variability for tablet splitting, in vitro dissolution profiles (in different fluids that could simulate the gastrointestinal environment of pets), and drug distribution uniformity.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: To study the in vitro performances of drug products in terms of variability.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Five veterinary products and five products for human use, containing different furosemide doses, are<br>characterized. Tablets splitting uniformity, in vitro dissolution profiles in different fluids that could simulate the<br>gastrointestinal environment of the different species, and drug content distribution, were tested.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The in vitro dissolution profiles of the different medicines are comparable but confirm a different dissolution rate as a function of the medium pH and volume. Many of the products considered show wide variability in the division performances of the scored tablets, and this problem could lead to the detected fluctuations in the diuretic effect. The four-leaf clover shape of a veterinary product appears to give rise to more uniform fractions. A uniform distribution of the drug in the tablets and their fractions is confirmed for all the products considered.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The possibility of tablets splitting allows considerable dosage flexibility, but a non-uniform break of the tablets to obtain the dosage suitable for the pet’s weight, can cause dangerous over-or sub-dosing condition, especially in critical pathologies and in small breed pets.</p> 2021-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The efficiency of natural-ecofriendly clay filters on water purification for improving performance and immunity in broiler chickens 2021-11-17T06:01:15+00:00 Essam S. Soliman Rania A. Hassan Doaa S. Farid <p><strong>Background:</strong> Innovative water treatments and purification processes have become a point of interest to provide solutions and meet the basic water requirements and demands. Clay plays a key role in environmental protection from pollutants through ion exchange and/or adsorption.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The study evaluated the adsorption and antimicrobial efficiency of clay in purifying polluted water, as well as the influence of clay-purified water on performance, immunity, and microbial counts.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The experimented 280 one-day-old Hubbard broilers were divided into seven groups on a deep litter system. Polluted water (lead nitrate; 500 mg/l, calcium sulfate; 80 mg/l, yeast extract 5%; 5 mg/l, diazinon; 2.5 ml/l, <em>Salmonella</em> Typhimurium; 1.5 × 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/ml, and <em>Eimeria tenella</em>; 1 × 10<sup>5</sup> OPG/ml) was filtered using plastic basins of 1 m<sup>3</sup> supplied with 60 cm layer of clay. Broiler groups (G1 to G6) were supplied with clay-filtered and G7 with control<br>tape water. A total of 2,182 samples, including 54 water samples, 266 sera, 266 duodenal swabs, 266 breast muscles, 266 fecal samples, and 1,064 organs including liver, spleen, heart, and bursa of Fabricius were collected.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Weight gains, performance indices, water intakes, water/feed intake ratios, live body weights, carcasses weights, edible and immune organs’ weights, immunoglobulin G and M, total antioxidant capacity, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase revealed highly significant (p &lt; 0.01) increases in all broiler groups supplemented with clay-filtered water compared to the control group. Meanwhile, total protein, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, cortisol hormone, total bacterial and <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> counts, total <em>Salmonella</em> counts, and <em>E. tenella</em> counts revealed highly significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01) declines in all broiler groups supplemented with clay-filtered water compared to the control group.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Clay filters provided high filtration, adsorption, and antimicrobial efficiency against polluted water, enhanced water quality, and improved performance and immunity in broiler chickens.</p> 2021-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of immunochromatography test for detection of four enteropathogens in the feces of sheep and goats in Kuwait 2021-11-17T06:05:40+00:00 Maha S. AlAzemi Qais A. H. Majeed Attia Samy Adawia A. Henedi Wessam Youssef Nadra-Elwgoud M. I. Abdou <p><strong>Background</strong>: Diarrhea in newborn small ruminants continues to be the cause of significant financial loss in sheep andgoat farms worldwide. Commercial immunochromatographic (IC) assays have been designed and evaluated to be used for the diagnosis of diarrhea in cattle; however, there are no trials to use rapid tests in small ruminants.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study was carried out in Kuwait to evaluate the performance of the rapid immunochromatography test (BoviD-4, BioNote, Inc, Korea) for diagnostics of <em>Cryptosporidium</em>, rotavirus A (RVA), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), and <em>Escherichia coli</em> K99 (<em>E. coli</em> K99) in fecal samples of sheep and goats.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 85 samples were examined using BoviD-4, and the results were compared with that of polymerase chain reaction for <em>Cryptosporidium</em>, RVA, and BCoV, whereas for<em> E. coli</em> K99 it was by isolation and identification as reference tests.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The kappa test agreement results between the BoviD-4 and reference tests were 0.870 (perfect), 0.783 (substantial), 0.728 (substantial), and 0.281 (fair) for the detection of <em>E. coli</em> K99, <em>Cryptosporidium</em>, RVA, and BCoV, respectively. The sensitivity of BoviD-4 kit was 91.2%, 80.0%, 90.0%, and 37.5% and the specificity was 88.2%, 96.0%, 96.4%, and 92.2% for <em>Cryptosporidium,</em> RVA, <em>E. coli</em> K99, and BCoV, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The Bovid-4 kit can be used as a rapid pen-side test for Cryptosporidium spp., E. coli K99, and RVA in the field. Nonetheless, care must be taken while interpreting the BCoV results of the kit.</p> 2021-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Is proteinuria a rare condition in apparently healthy and sick cats? A feline practice experience (2007–2018) 2021-11-16T16:45:59+00:00 Maria Cristina López Valentina Aybar Andrea Zatelli Anna Vila Juan Jose Vega Eduard Hernando Alejandro Jiménez Xavier Roura <p><strong>Background</strong>: Proteinuria is assumed to be less frequent in cats than in dogs and is mainly associated with chronic<br>kidney disease (CKD).<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The current study aimed to evaluate and compare urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC) values retrospectively in cats visited for comprehensive annual health check or for presenting systemic clinical signs related to CKD.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> UPC ratio was retrospectively evaluated in 112 owned cats, out of which 51 (45.5%) were apparently healthy cats according to their owners who visited for comprehensive annual health checks and 61 (54.5%) sick cats, presenting systemic clinical signs suggesting CKD, such as weight loss or polyuria/polydipsia, among others.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Based on UPC, the present study found that 54.5% of all cats included were borderline proteinuric or proteinuric, having increased UPC (UPC ≥ 0.2), with 35.7% included in the sick group and 18.7% in the healthcheck<br>group. Increased UPC was also statistically associated with azotemia and isosthenuria (urinary-specific gravity<br>between 1,008 and 1,035) in both sick and health-check groups of cats.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Independent of the reason for their medical visit, it could be concluded that borderline proteinuria and<br>proteinuria were statistically mainly related to CKD in cats. Furthermore, the measurement of UPC could be very<br>useful in the detection and management of CKD in apparently healthy cats during a medical visit for annual health check irrespective of the age.</p> 2021-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Molecular characterization and in vivo pathogenicity study of <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> isolated from fresh and frozen local and imported fish in Jordan 2021-11-16T17:05:40+00:00 Yaser Tarazi Saeb El-Sukhon Adil Al-Rahbi Zuhair Bani Ismail <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> (<em>L. monocytogenes</em>) is a serious zoonotic and food transmitted human pathogen<br>causing meningitis and abortions. Several outbreaks of listeriosis have been associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat food products; dairy, meat, fish, and contaminated fruits and vegetables worldwide.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study was designed to detect and characterize <em>L. monocytogenes</em> isolated from local and imported fish in<br>Jordan.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 170 fish (70 local and 100 imported), of which 140 fresh and 30 frozen samples were used in this<br>study. <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> was cultured and initially identified using conventional microbiological methods. For<br>confirmation and serotyping of the<em> L. monocytogenes</em> isolates, PCR techniques were used. Using oral and intraperitoneal<br>administration, mice were used to determine the pathogenicity and LD<sub>50</sub> of the isolated <em>L. monocytogenes</em>.<br><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 72 <em>Listeria</em> spp. isolates were cultured from fish. Of those, 24 were positively identified as <em>L. monocytogenes</em>. Other strains of <em>Listeria</em> spp. were <em>L. ivanovii</em> (21), <em>L. innocua</em> (11), and<em> L. grayi</em> (16). Serotyping of the L. monocytogenes indicated that 14 isolates belonged to the 1/2b, 3b serotypes whereas 10 isolates belonged to the 4a and 4c serotypes. All isolates were virulent to mice with an LD<sub>50</sub> dose ranging from 3 × 10<sup>10</sup> CFU/ml to 3 × 10<sup>7.5</sup> CFU/ml. All the virulent isolates belonged to the serotype 1/2b. Histopathologically, dead mice showed multiple necrotic lesions in the liver and spleen.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Results of this study showed the presence of potentially pathogenic L. monocytogenes in fresh and frozen, local, and imported fish in Jordan. Strict monitoring and quality control regulatory measures must be adopted to<br>prevent future outbreaks of food poisoning associated with fish consumption.</p> 2021-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)