Open Veterinary Journal <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli en-US Open Veterinary Journal 2226-4485 Copyright belongs to the journal. Impact of various watering regimes on physiological and hematological parameters in intensively kept Marecha (<i>Camelus dromedarius</i>) she-camels in summer season <p><strong>Background:</strong> Camel is vital to daily life as a source of food and means of transportation, and just as importantly, its milk and urine have been used as medicine for diverse ailments since ancient times for people living in the desert region.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The current study was planned to investigate the effect of different watering regimes on physiological and hematological parameters of lactating Marecha camels during the summer season.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: For this purpose, 12 lactating she-camels of almost similar age (8–13 years) and parity (2–5) were selected in a completely randomized design with four animals per treatment at the Camel Breeding and Research Station Rakh Mahni District Bhakkar. The trial was completed in 60 days, while 7 days were given as an acclimatization period for adaptation. The treatments were as follows: Group-1 (G-1) considered as the control had access to water once in a day; Group-2 (G-2) had access to water once in 4 days, and Group-3 (G-3) had access to water once in 6 days. Animals were housed individually for feeding and watering in an intensive management system. The same feed consisting of green fodder (Lucerne) and gram straw (Cicer arientinum) was offered to all animals. The average ambient temperature and relative humidity were 39°C–41°C and 55%–63%, respectively.<br><strong>Result:</strong> The mean values (p &lt; 0.001) of water intake were found to be 82.94 ± 1.34 l in G-3, which was higher than G-1 and G-2. Blood analysis showed that packed cell volume, white blood cells, and hemoglobin were affected significantly (p &lt; 0.001, p &lt; 0.01, and p &lt; 0.05, respectively).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> No serious changes in complete blood count and physiological parameters were reported in this study. So, this shows that the camel is unique in its physiological adaptation in hot and hostile environments. </p> Asim Faraz Naeem Ullah Khan Ayman Balla Mustafa Muhammad Younas Muhammad Yaqoob Muhammad Shahid Nabeel Monjid Ahmed Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 11 2 180 187 Clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells therapy in musculoskeletal injuries in dogs—a review of the scientific literature <p>Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, which is defined by their ability to self-renew while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into a certain number of cells, presumably from their own germinal layer. MSCs therapy is based on their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory (immunosuppressive), and regenerative potential. This review aims to provide a clinical overview of the MSCs potential as a therapeutic option for orthopedic diseases in dogs. A total of 25 clinical studies published in the scientific literature in the last 15 years on various diseases will be presented: semitendinosus myopathy, supraspinatus tendinopathy, cruciate ligament rupture, bone fractures and defects, and also osteoarthritis (OA). All articles involved in this study include only diseases that have naturally occurred in canine patients. MSCs therapy in the veterinary orthopedic field has great potential, especially for OA. All studies presented<br>promising results. However, MSCs bone healing capacity did not reveal such favorable outcomes in the long term. Besides, most of these clinical studies did not include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and histopathology to confirm that MSCs have differentiated and incorporated into the injured tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge of canine MSCs biology, immunology, and clinical application in canine orthopedic diseases. Despite the positive results in its use, there is still a lack of defined protocols, heterogeneous samples, and concomitant medications used with MSCs therapy compromising therapeutic effects. Further studies are needed in the hope of overcoming its limitation in upcoming trials.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Inês E. Dias Diogo F. Cardoso Carla S. Soares Luís C. Barros Carlos A. Viegas Pedro P. Carvalho Isabel R. Dias Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 11 2 188 202 The scientific basis of acupuncture for veterinary pain management: A review based on relevant literature from the last two decades <p>The practice of acupuncture is becoming increasingly popular in veterinary medicine, especially as a method of providing pain relief. Originally based on principles derived from centuries of observation, conventional scientific mechanisms of action for acupuncture as a pain-relieving modality have recently been elucidated. Acupuncture points allow access to multiple regions of the body via the peripheral nervous system and its connection with the central nervous system. Local, segmental (spinal), and suprasegmental (brain) effects of acupuncture involve enhanced release of pain-relieving endogenous substances (e.g., opioids) and mitigated release of pain-inducing substances (e.g., inflammatory cytokines). In addition, there is evidence that acupuncture can induce positive neurochemical and cytoarchitectural change in the central nervous system via the phenomenon of neuroplasticity. Electroacupuncture is considered the most effective type of acupuncture delivery, allowing for more potent and long-lasting pain relief than is achieved via other methods (e.g., dry needling). The purpose of this review article is to summarize the relevant scientific literature from the last two decades relating to the physiological mechanisms of action of acupuncture as a pain-relieving modality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Animal, Acupuncture, Electroacupuncture, Pain, Veterinary medicine. </p> Curtis Wells Dewey Huisheng Xie Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2 203 209 Periodontal disease is associated with cognitive dysfunction in aging dogs: A blinded prospective comparison of visual periodontal and cognitive questionnaire scores <p><strong>Background:</strong> Periodontal disease has been linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease in people. It is theorized that the chronic inflammatory condition characteristic of oral dysbiosis in patients with periodontal disease leads to disruption of the blood–brain barrier, cytotoxin- and pathogen-induced brain damage, and accumulation of neurotoxic β-amyloid. In this inflammatory theory of Alzheimer’s disease, β-amyloid—a known antimicrobial protein— accumulates in response to oral pathogens. Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is considered a naturally occurring animal model of human Alzheimer’s disease. Like humans, periodontal disease is quite common in dogs; however, a link between periodontal disease and cognitive dysfunction has not been identified in this species.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this prospective investigation was to compare visual periodontal scores (from digital oral photographs) with numerical (0–54) cognitive assessment questionnaire forms in aging dogs with and without a clinical diagnosis of CCD.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A visual analogue scale (0–4) was used to score the severity of periodontal disease in 21 aging dogs: 11 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of presumptive CCD and 10 dogs without a clinical history of cognitive decline. Individuals scoring the dental photographs were blinded to all case information, including cognitive assessment scores. Cognitive assessment scores were compared with periodontal disease scores for all dogs.<br><strong>Results:</strong> There was a significant (p &lt; 0.05) association between periodontal and cognitive scores, with higher cognitive impairment scores being more likely in dogs with more severe periodontal disease and vice versa. No associations were identified between age and either periodontal disease or cognitive impairment.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although a cause-and-effect relationship between periodontal disease and cognitive impairment cannot be ascertained from this preliminary study, we established a link between these two disorders that warrants further investigation using more stringent criteria for evaluating both periodontal disease and cognitive dysfunction.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Curtis Wells Dewey Mark Rishniw Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 11 2 210 216 Long-term management of a cat with nasopharyngeal lymphoma by chlorambucil <p><strong>Background:</strong> Lymphoma in the nasal cavity is the most common tumor of cats' upper respiratory tract. However, the effect of single-agent chlorambucil on nasal or nasopharyngeal lymphoma has not been evaluated in cats.</p> <p><strong>Case Description:</strong> An 8-year-old, castrated male Scottish Fold weighing 3.5 kg presented with an 8-month history of nasal discharge, sneezing, and mild epistaxis. CT and rhinoscopy revealed nasal discharge and slight swelling of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, but no masses and local invasions were detected. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the nasopharyngeal mucosa demonstrated B-cell lymphoma in the cat. The treatment with chlorambucil led to long-term management of the cat without any side effects. No recurrences of clinical signs have been observed for 754 days.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The present case report suggests that chlorambucil can be a therapeutic option for feline localized nasopharyngeal B-cell lymphoma without masses and local invasions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kaho Takahashi Takashi Baba Marin Hirokawa Masaki Miyajima Miori Kishimoto Junpei Kimura Hirotaka Kondo Keitaro Ohmori Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-25 2021-04-25 11 2 217 221 Effect of probiotics administration at different levels on the productive parameters of guinea pigs for fattening (<i>Cavia porcellus</i>) <p><strong>Background</strong>: For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used to maintain animal welfare and improve efficiency. Recently, antibiotics were found in the muscle, liver, and kidney of guinea pig carcasses put up for sale and human consumption, which is a public health issue. Probiotics are supplements of live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate doses, could replace growth-promoting&nbsp; antibiotics.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study analyzed the effect of the administration of an oral probiotic mixture on the guinea pigs productive performance (<em>Cavia porcellus</em>).<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifty male guinea pigs, weaned at 14 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design of five treatments with ten repetitions for each group. The treatments were CONTROL group without probiotic; PROB 1 given 1 ml of probiotic; PROB 2 with 2 ml of probiotic; PROB 3 with 3 ml of probiotic; and antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) was given 300 ppm zinc bacitracin. The microorganisms used in the probiotic were <em>Enterococcus hirae, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus frumenti, Lactobacillus johnsoni, Streptococcus thoraltensis, </em>and<em> Bacillus pumilus</em>. Productive parameters were evaluated from weaning to 70 days of age.<br><strong>Results:</strong> No statistically significant difference was found between the treatments on forage dry matter intake (DMI),&nbsp; concentrate concentrate DMI, or total concentrate DMI (p &gt; 0.05). Similarly, no statistical difference was found between the treatments in terms of final weight or weight gain (p &gt; 0.05). Regarding the feed conversion ratio (FCR), there was a significant difference between treatments (p = 0.045); the CONTROL group had the highest FCR, followed by the AGP group, with the best FCR observed in the PROB 3 group (p &lt; 0.05). In addition, significant statistical differences were found between CONTROL and PROB 2 (p &lt; 0.05). Likewise, a significant linear effect of increasing doses of the probiotic was found (p = 0.01), which indicated that the feed conversion was better with a higher dose.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The treatments evaluated in this study significantly impacted the FCR in guinea pigs for fattening. Increasing doses of&nbsp; probiotics had a linear effect on FCR.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fernando Carcelén Melissa López Felipe San Martín Miguel Ara Sandra Bezada Luis Ruiz-García Rocío Sandoval-Monzón Sofía López Jorge Guevara Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 11 2 222 227 Role of insulin, insulin sensitivity, and abomasal functions monitors in evaluation of the therapeutic regimen in ketotic dairy cattle using combination therapy with referring to milk yield rates <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ketosis is one of the most critical metabolic disorders that occur in dairy cows after parturition due to negative energy balance around calving.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The study evaluated a specific therapeutic regimen of ketosis in Holstein dairy cattle by using the combination therapy including hormones, corticosteroids, propylene glycol, and vitamin B12 as well as the use of milk yield rates, insulin, insulin sensitivity, and abomasal functions monitors as diagnostic biomarkers for the recovery of ketotic cows either pre-therapy (0 days) or post-therapy (7 and 14 days).<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was conducted on ketotic cattle (n = 20) belonged to different dairy farms in Cairo and Giza governorates, Egypt. The diseased cows were undergoing clinical and biochemical investigations for the estimation of serum insulin. Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) and abomasal functions monitor mainly serum levels of gastrin, pepsinogen, and chloride.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The milk production rates, cost: benefit analysis ratio, and benefit of the dairy farm in ketotic animals were significantly increased post-treatment. An improvement of insulin sensitivity was stated as serum insulin, and RQUICKI were remarkably increased in post-therapeutic ketotic cows. Monitors of the abomasal function revealed abomasal functions improvement through the significant elevation of blood gastrin and a substantial reduction in serum pepsinogen due to treatment.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed high efficacy of the applied therapeutic strategy regime. It led to a high recovery rate and a very low relapse rate for ketosis. An improvement in milk yield rates, insulin sensitivity, and abomasal function monitors was reported.&nbsp; Hypoinsulinaemia was still reported, however, serum insulin was improved.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Enas Elmeligy Shin Oikawa Sabry A. Mousa Sara A. Bayoumi Ahmed Hafez Ragab H. Mohamed Al-lethie A. Al-lethie Dalia Hassan Arafat Khalphallah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 11 2 228 237 Oxidative stress in <i>Strongylus spp.</i> infected donkeys treated with piperazine citrate versus doramectin <p><strong>Background:</strong> Parasitic infection is one of the main problems in equidae, particularly donkeys.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study evaluated the oxidative stress in donkeys infected with <em>Strongylus spp</em> by determining the correlation between antioxidants levels; malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the severity of parasitic infection. It also compared the therapeutic efficacy of piperazine citrate as an oral anthelmintic drug and Doramectin as an injectable one.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted on 40 donkeys naturally infected with <em>Strongylus spp.</em> These donkeys were divided into two groups (20 donkeys each) according to treatment; One group was treated with piperazine citrate (PipTG) and the other with doramectin (DoraTG). Thorough clinical examination, hematological, biochemical, and parasitological assays were performed before (Day 0) and after treatment (Days 7, 14, 21, and 28). All data were statistically analyzed by independent-sample t-test or paired t-test.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In both groups, mean values of MDA were significantly reduced, while those of TAC were significantly elevated after treatment on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. These significant changes were reported after treatment between PipTG and DoraTG in favor of DoraTG. Serum concentrations of MDA were significantly reduced, while those of TAC were significantly elevated for DoraTG treatment group when their values were compared with those of PipTG either on days 7, 14, 21, or 28. Significant correlations were reported in PipTG and DoraTG. Negative significant correlations were reported between fecal egg count (FEC) and each of whole blood picture indices (RBCS, Hb, and PCV), serum TAC and faecal egg count reduction percentage FECR%. A positive correlation was seen between FEC and MDA. MDA exhibited a negative correlation with both blood picture and TAC; hence, TAC was positively correlated with these blood picture indices in both PipTG and DoraTG. In PipTG, anthelmintic resistance (R) was present on days 7 and 14, while it was suspected (S) at day 21 then it was absent (N) at day 28. In DoraTG, anthelmintic resistance was suspected (S) on day 7, then it became absent (N) on days 14, 21, and 28 post therapy.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The immunological status of the infected donkeys had greatly improved after treatment. The therapeutic efficacy of injectable doramectin was more efficient than that of oral piperazine citrate in <em>Strongylus spp.</em> infected donkeys.<br><br></p> Enas Elmeligy Abdelbaset Abdelbaset Hanan K. Elsayed Sara A. Bayomi Ahmed Hafez Ashraf M. Abu-Seida Khaled A. S. El-Khabaz Dalia Hassan Rehab A. Ghandour Arafat Khalphallah Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-06 2021-05-06 11 2 238 250 The MTT assay application to measure the viability of spermatozoa: A variety of the assay protocols <p>The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay is one of the methods used to evaluate the viability of sperm. In the assay, a tetrazolium component (MTT) is converted into MTT formazan by some specific enzymes in the viable cells. The amount of formazan product in theory is directly correlated with the percentage of viable sperms. It is quantified by measuring the absorbance using a spectrophotometer. The present article compiles the MTT assays that have been used to determine sperm viability in most animal species and humans. In each assay, other factors apart from the number of viable cells that potentially influence the accuracy and precision of results are stated, such as preparations of sperm and MTT solutions, length and conditions of incubation, and a solubilizing agent as well as the formazan detection method. Also, the strengths and shortcomings of the MTT test comparison with the others are summarized at the end of this article. This information may be useful for prospective researchers deciding to implement this colorimetric method in their experiments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kakanang Buranaamnuay Copyright (c) 2021 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 11 2 251 269 Effect of combined intrathecal/intravenous injection of bone marrow derived stromal cells in platelet-rich plasma on spinal cord injury in companion animals <p><strong>Background</strong>: Companion animals are prone to spinal cord injuries commonly associated with severe locomotor and sensory&nbsp; complications, which can escalate to a state of irreversible paralysis. Stem cell therapies propose a hope for treating spinal cord injuries via differentiation into neurons and associated glial cells, halting the immune attacks, inhibiting apoptosis and necrosis, and secretion of neurotrophic factors that stimulate the regeneration process.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study aims to evaluate the use of autologous bone marrow derived stromal cells in platelet-rich plasma carrier for selected clinical cases having chronic spinal cord injuries in dogs and cats via a one-time combined intrathecal/ intravenous injection.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cells were injected in five dogs and three cats suffering from disc protrusion leading to spinal cord injury and in thosewho did not respond to conventional treatment during a clinical trial.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results indicated that the transplanted cells led to the restoration of the weight bearing locomotor function and spinal reflexes in a period less than 90 days with physical rehabilitation. The treatment showed minor changes in the magnetic resonance images of&nbsp; extruded discs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concluded that the combined intrathecal/intravenous injection of bone marrow stromal cells is a safe and promising procedure for treating chronic spinal cord injuries in companion animals. </p> Ahmed N. Abdallah Ashraf A. Shamaa Omar S. El-Tookhy Mohamed M. Bahr Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 11 2 270 276 Effects of fake and original perfumes on the presence, numbers, and distribution of mast cells in selected tissues in rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Perfumes, whether original or fake, are considered of great economic value. However, overzealous use of perfumes could be associated with local or systemic side effects.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily use of original and fake perfumes on numbers and distribution of mast cells in several organs and tissues of Wistar rats.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Three different kinds of original perfumes coded as O1, O2, and O3 and their fake counterparts coded as F1, F2, and F3 were applied once daily directly on the skin of rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, representative tissue samples were taken and processed for histopathological examination using Hematoxylin and Eosin, toluidine blue, and Wright’s stains.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A significant (p &lt; 0.05) elevation in mast cell count was observed in F3, O3, F1, and F2 compared to the control group. The majority of mast cells were distributed in the hepatic perivascular tissues, peribronchial and pleural tissues. There was a significant (p &lt; 0.05) elevation in mast cell count in along the interalveolar wall, peribronchial area, and pleura tissues in F1 and O3 groups.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Results of this study indicated that repeated use of both original and fake perfumes was associated with an increased number of mast cells in different body organs and tissues.<br><br></p> Wael M. Hananeh Fatima Al Ghbari Raida Al Rukibat Mohammad Al Zghoul Zuhair Bani Ismail Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-06 2021-06-06 11 2 277 282 Use of a pleural access port for the treatment of pyothorax in a cat <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pyothorax in cats is treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and while thoracotomy and debridement are less commonly necessary, thoracostomy tubes are the treatment of choice when repeated drainage of the pleural cavity is needed.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: An 11-month-old British short-haired cat was presented for a sudden onset of lethargy, dyspnea, and tachypnea, following an ovariohysterectomy 10 days prior to the treatment process. Pyrexia and muffled cardiac sounds on the left hemithorax were noted. A hemogram indicated the development of anemia and neutrophilia with a left shift. Radiography and ultrasonography confirmed a pleural effusion, and a CT scan ruled out the presence of any masses or perforating foreign bodies. A PCR on the pleural effusion ruled out feline coronavirus infection, and fluid analysis was confirmed as a septic exudate with Pasteurella multocida infection. A pleural access port was used to treat the pyothorax that successfully reduced hospitalization time and lowered overall financial outlay despite surgical implantation.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present report describes the successful use of a pleural port to treat pyothorax in one cat. This is the first time such a device has been reported for the treatment of pyothorax.<br><br></p> Angel Almendros Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-09 2021-06-09 11 2 283–288 283–288 Autologous blood patch pleurodesis treatment for persistent pneumothorax: A case series of five dogs (2016–2020) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Autologous blood patch pleurodesis (ABP) has been described as a treatment for persistent pneumothorax in the dogs and among humans. Although the treatment of persistent or recurring spontaneous pneumothorax is classically surgical, it cannot always be performed due to medical or financial constraints. This case series describes the clinical course, etiology, and outcome of five dogs with persistent pneumothorax treated with ABP.<br><strong>Case Description:</strong> Five client-owned dogs with persistent pneumothorax are presented. Two dogs had pneumothorax due to congenital pulmonary bullae, one due to thoracic trauma, another due to lungworm infection, and a fifth withunknown cause in the context of a relapsing subcutaneous haemangiosarcoma. Around 5 ml/kg of non-coagulated blood was aseptically collected from the jugular vein and injected via a thoracotomy tube immediately into the pleural cavity of dogs with persistent pneumothorax. The procedure was successful in four out of five dogs after one procedure, therefore a success rate of 80%. A repeat of the pleurodesis was attempted in the fifth dog, 12 hours after the first injection due to the recollection of the pneumothorax. Still, the dog died during anesthesia in preparation for the procedure. No complications that could be directly linked to ABP occurred.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> ABP is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, effective, and safe procedure that can be useful for treating persistent pneumothorax that does not respond to conservative treatment and where surgical exploration cannot be carried out. Pneumothorax secondary due to trauma and congenital pulmonary bullae seem to respond well to ABP.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Marie-Laure Théron Tomas Lahuerta-Smith Sébastien Sarrau Bruno Ben-Moura Antoine Hidalgo Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 11 2 289–294 289–294 Patellar luxation in Hejazi goats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patellar luxation (PL) is a common orthopedic affection among farm and pet animals with mostly congenital (environmental and/or genetic) background.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> We report here the first observation of lateral PL in Hejazi goats bred in Libya.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Five Hejazi goats aged between 4 months and 2 years with severe hind limb lameness were admitted to Al-Sorouh veterinary clinic in Tripoli during the period from 2016 to 2018. The goats were thoroughly examined clinically and radiographically. Two goats were surgically treated, and the other three cases were not because of either the cost limitation or expected poor prognosis. The surgical intervention involved femoral trochlear sulcoplasty, medial joint capsule imbrication, and tibial tuberosity transposition.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The clinical examination showed grade III–IV lateral PL. Radiologically, there were unilateral or bilateral, ventrocaudal, and dorsal PLs. Two cases were referred to surgical correction. One case almost restored the normal movement of stifle joint together with a good general status 1 year postsurgery. However, the surgical treatment was not effective in correcting the luxated patella in the second case.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Lateral PL is common among orthopedic affections in Hejazi goats in Libya, and its surgical treatment provided a quite&nbsp; convenient approach. An association between inbreeding and the PL was suggested in those cases.<br><br></p> Mohamed H. Abushhiwa Adulrhman M. Alrtib Taher N. Elmeshreghi Mouna A. Abdunnabi Mansur E. Shmela Emad M. Bennour Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-18 2021-06-18 11 2 295–300 295–300 First seroprevalence investigation of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus in Libya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a vector-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Epizootic&nbsp; haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is transmitted by Culicoides spp. EHDV is a member of the <em>Orbivirus genus</em> within the Reoviridae family. It shares many morphological and structural characteristics with other members of the genus, such as the bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, and equine encephalosis virus.<br><strong>Aims:</strong> The purpose of our study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of EHDV in Libya in order to gain some knowledge about the presence of this virus in the country.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of EHDV in Libya, testing 855 blood samples collected during 2015. The samples were collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) originating from 11 provinces of Libya. Sera were tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and positive samples confirmed by serum neutralization test.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The overall seroprevalence of EHDV was estimated to be 4% (95% confidence intervals = 2.8%–5.4%). Small ruminant seroprevalence was significantly (p = 0.016) higher than that found in cattle. Neutralizing antibodies against EHDV-6 were detected in a sheep from the western region of Libya.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study suggests that EHDV has circulated or is circulating in Libya, and sheep could play an important role in the epidemiology of EHDV, and the virus may still be circulating in North Africa.<br><br></p> Abdusalam Mahmoud Maria Luisa Danzetta Daria di Sabatino Massimo Spedicato Zakaria Alkhatal Abdunaser Dayhum Franceseco Tolari Mario Forzan Maurizio Mazzei Giovanni Savini Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 11 2 301–308 301–308 Experimental infection of <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> in red tilapia (<i>Oreochromis</i> hybrid) revealed low pathogenicity to cause streptococcosis <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Streptococcosis,</em> as a bacterial disease with broad tropism in fish and one of the causes of septicemia. <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> is one of the causative agents of streptococcosis that can be isolated in tilapia.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study was undertaken to complete the reporting gap on the pathogenicity profile and clinical symptoms of <em>E. faecalis</em> bacterial infection in red tilapia (Oreochromis hybrid). The study is expected to provide enriching information regarding recognizable clinical signs in the field that can lead to the diagnosis of streptococcosis caused by <em>E. faecalis</em>, especially in the Indonesian aquaculture environment.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The method used in this artificial infection study using red tilapia, which were divided into two types of route groups infection, namely intraperitoneal (IP) and peroral (PO) with bacterial concentrations given for each route of infection to be 2.1 × 108 CFU ml<sup>−1</sup>; 2.1 × 10<sup>7</sup> CFU ml<sup>−1</sup>; and 2.1 × 10<sup>6</sup> CFU ml<sup>−1</sup>. One group was given brain heart infusion broth media sterile as a non-infectious control. Clinical symptoms, changes in swimming habits and consuming feed, external and internal organ lesion, and leukocytes profile changes were observed during the observation period along 14 days to evaluate the infectious effect of each treated fish group. The lethal dose 50 (LD<sub>50</sub>) was estimated with the Spearman–Kärber method. The evaluation of the leukocyte profile was performed to find leukocytosis as the clinical sign of infection.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed variations in clinical symptoms inflicted on fish through death or the moribund stage. The highest mortality occurred in the treatment group of 2.1 × 108 CFU ml−1 with the PO route. The bacterial concentration of 2.1 × 10<sup>7</sup> CFU ml<sup>−1</sup> given either as PO or IP can cause mild infection symptoms but did not cause mortality. The LD<sub>50</sub> of the PO and IP route was obtained at 1.99 × 10<sup>8</sup> CFU ml<sup>−1</sup> and 0.79 × 108 CFU ml<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. The total leukocytes in the infected fish group increased significantly (p &lt; 0.05) by twofold when compared with the non-infectious group. The bacteria’s discovery on the blood smear examination was taken from fresh dead fish or moribund fish in the treatment group of 2.1 × 10<sup>8</sup> CFU ml<sup>−1</sup>, for both PO and IP.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> with low pathogenicity can lead to septicemia, characterized by a total increase in leukocytes, bacteria’s discovery on the blood smear examination, and various clinical symptoms systemically found in the treated fish.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Rifky Rizkiantino Fachriyan Hasmi Pasaribu Retno Damajanti Soejoedono Sucitya Purnama Danny Bagus Wibowo I Wayan Teguh Wibawan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 11 2 309–318 309–318 Adrenal cortex stimulation with hCG in spayed female dogs with Cushing’s syndrome: Is the LH-dependent variant possible? <p><strong>Background</strong>: The expression and overexpression of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors in the canine adrenal gland cortex have been reported. Therefore, it was hypothesized that a LH-dependent form of Cushing’s syndrome (CS) could exist in dogs.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To assess whether the adrenal gland post-ovariectomy (OVx) exhibits a greater response to adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) stimulation; to evaluate whether the adrenal gland responds to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation by increasing the release of cortisol; and to consider whether hCG stimulus testing would be useful as a diagnosis for possible cases of LH-dependent CS.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Cortisol concentrations were measured from healthy female dogs (n=16) at baseline and following ACTH stimulation before and 2 months after gonadectomy (OVx). Cortisol concentrations were also measured for female dogs with CS (n = 14) following administration of hCG (5000 IU). A post-hCG cortisol concentration greater than 140 nmol/l was used to define dogs with LH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In normal female dogs, both pre- and post-stimulation cortisol concentrations increased following OVx (p = 0.002 and p = 0.0003, respectively). In female dogs with CS, cortisol concentrations increased following stimulation with hCG in 57% (8/14; p = 0.002). Age at the time of OVx was associated (p = 0.015) with the cortisol response to hCG [8 (5–9) years vs. 3.5 (2–6) years, p = 0.0013).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on these results, an LH-dependent form of CS occurs in spayed female dogs, and that it is more likely to occur when female dogs are spayed later in life.<br><br></p> Ignacio M. Espiñeira Patricia N. Vidal María C. Ghersevich Elber A. Soler Arias Fernanda Bosetti María F. Cabrera Blatter Diego D. Miceli Víctor A. Castillo Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 2 319–329 319–329 Morphology and histology of paryphasmata and hemibaculum of Varanus salvator based on sexual maturity <p><strong>Background</strong>: Varanus salvator is one of the reptiles being hunted by human beings for several purposes, including traditional medicine. The studies about reproductive biology aspects were limited.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to determine the morphology, histology, and histometry of V. salvator paryphasmata and hemibaculum based on Snout-Vent Length (SVL) as an indicator of sexual maturity.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This study examined 18 pairs of hemipenis of V. salvator with SVL more and less than 40 cm in equal number. Paryphasmata and hemibaculum parts were observed visually and micro-sliced, then stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). The histological observation was conducted under a 40×, 100×, and 400× magnification of a light microscope. The histometry of the paryphasmata was examined using 13 Megapixels Coolpad and OptiLab Plus for microscopic pictures. The chondrocyte cell area was measured using the Optilab Plus and Image Raster three applications.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The sizes of glans of hemipenis, paryphasmata, and hemibaculum increased according to the increasing of SVL. The average paryphasmata row number, epidermis, and loose connective tissue thickness were not significantly different (p &gt; 0.05). However, dense connective tissue was thicker (p &lt; 0.05), which corresponds to SVL. Hemibaculum was composed of fibrous and hyaline cartilage characterized by chondrocyte cells. The SVL also affects (p &lt; 0.05) the ossification of hyaline in hemipenis, while the chondrocyte cell area followed the equation −1.87E7 + 7.09E5* SVL.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The SVL size of V. salvator affects the paryphasmata, hemibaculum, thickness of dense connective tissue of paryphasmata, and the area of chondrocyte cells.<br><br></p> Alif Yahya Al-ma’ruf Regita Permata Sari Imam Mustofa Suzanita Utama Chairul Anwar Maslichah Mafruchati Eka Pramyrtha Hestianah Lita Rakhma Yustinasari Benjamin Christoffel Tehupuring Djoko Legowo Boedi Setiawan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 11 2 330–336 330–336