Open Veterinary Journal <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal. (Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes) (Prof. Salah Azwai) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 19:47:17 +0000 OJS 60 A brief overview of animal symptom checkers <p>Symptom checkers are tools that provide health information, including possible conditions, after entering one or more symptoms. Some symptom checkers also provide advice on how urgent medical attention should be sought. In addition to human symptom checkers, several tools are also available to check the symptoms of animals and provide veterinary triage advice. Unlike in human symptom checkers, this widespread availability has not lead to investigations of these tools. Indeed, little to no peer-reviewed research has been published regarding animal symptom checkers. This paper aims to describe some examples of animal symptom checkers. In addition, the proposals for future research are formulated by translating knowledge obtained from research into human symptom checkers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Animal, Online, Pet, Symptom checker.</p> Jelle Stans Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Laryngeal stent for acute and chronic respiratory distress in seven dogs with laryngeal paralysis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Laryngeal paralysis, failure of arytenoid cartilage, and vocal fold abduction are commonly seen in older medium to large breed dogs. Observation of laryngeal function in dogs and cats is performed by transoral visualization. There are a variety of surgical techniques; aspiration pneumonia is the most common complication associated with surgical correction of laryngeal paralysis. The aim of this case series is to report on the placement of a laryngeal silicone stent in seven dogs with laryngeal paralysis and its use as an alternative treatment of respiratory distress caused by laryngeal paralysis and/or its use for laryngeal stenosis as complication of laryngeal paralysis surgery.<br><strong>Case description</strong>: Seven dogs presented with either episode of gagging, mild-to-severe inspiratory distress, or cyanosis because of a laryngeal paralysis or laryngeal stenosis. In each case, the laryngeal paralysis was diagnosed by direct laryngoscopy. They were treated with a silicone laryngeal stent (Stening®) that substantially improved the clinical signs. Each dog had a different outcome because of other pathologies; however, the laryngeal pathology was successfully treated with the stent.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The placement of the laryngeal stent is an easy technique to learn and practice, it could avoid the lifethreatening complications of the laryngeal paralysis at the acute phase, and it could be a noninvasive and long-term alternative therapy for laryngeal paralysis in dogs. The results in these clinical cases are encouraging for considering the laryngeal stent as a therapeutic alternative.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Canine, Polyneuropathy, Prosthesis, Surgery.</p> María Cecilia Ricart, Sergio Martín Rodríguez, Roberto Miguel Duré Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Atrial septal defect closure in a midget toy poodle <p><strong>Background</strong>: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a rare congenital cardiac disease, and there have been no reports about the treatment of ASD in midget breed dogs.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 7-month-old female toy poodle weighing 1.4 kg presented with cardiac enlargement. Echocardiography revealed a secundum-type ASD, right ventricular and atrial enlargement, and pulmonary hypertension. Blood flow through the ASD exhibited left-to-right shunting. The dog underwent ASD closure through a hybrid approach, in conjunction with catheter techniques and thoracotomy. Ten months after treatment, cardiac enlargement and pulmonary hypertension were improved.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Even in midget dog breeds, ASD can be corrected through a hybrid approach.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Canine, Cardiology, Catheter, Congestive heart failure, Small breed.</p> Keisuke Sugimoto, Yohei Mochizuki, Teppei Kanda, Akihiro Ohnishi, Masahiro Miyabe, Yuko Wada, Masaki Kochi, Takuma Aoki Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An update on hemilaminectomy of the cranial thoracic spine: Review of six cases <p><strong>Background</strong>: The optimal surgical approach to relieve spinal cord compression in the cranial thoracic spine is not well described, and the anatomy of the cranial thoracic vertebrae creates added surgical difficulty.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study describes the surgical approach, treatment, and outcome of three dogs and three cats that underwent a cranial thoracic hemilaminectomy for the treatment of extradural spinal cord compression. Surgical positioning was tailored to avoid extensive dissection and provide for a restricted, careful approach.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Three dogs and three cats presenting for cranial thoracic spinal cord compression requiring surgical intervention were included.<br><strong>Results</strong>: All patients were discharged within 5 days. No patients experienced postoperative deterioration in neurologic status, and four animals had improved neurologic status at discharge.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In cases with cranial thoracic spinal cord compression, the spinous processes can be spared, extensive muscle dissection minimized, and successful outcomes achieved with the appropriate positioning and limited approach.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hemilaminectomy, Intervertebral Disc Disease, Myelopathy, Thoracic.</p> Kathryn Y. Bray, Peter J. Early, Natasha J. Olby, Melissa J. Lewis Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The ophthalmic health and refractive state of working dogs in South Brazil <p><strong>Background:</strong> Working dogs, such as police dogs and guide dogs, have important roles in the contemporary society by performing specific and demanding jobs. Ocular health and the maintenance of good visual acuity are imperative to strong work performance and thus human safety.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of this study was to assess ophthalmic abnormalities and refractive errors in police and guide dogs in Brazil.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 71 dogs (141 eyes) were evaluated. Ten were guide dogs and 61 were police dogs. The work performance was assessed by a questionnaire to each dog’s handler/owner. All the dogs underwent a complete ocular examination, and abnormalities were classified by condition, if they were active or inactive and if they were located within the visual axis. In addition, 62 dogs were evaluated by streak retinoscopy for refractive errors.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Ophthalmic abnormalities were detected in 38 (54%) dogs, of which 23 were considered inherited, 25 were considered active, and 10 were located within the visual axis. Incipient cataracts were the most prevalent abnormality. No guide dog had an abnormality within the visual axis. The most common refractive error was myopia with the median and interquartile range of −0.75 ± 0.75 diopters; among these, police dogs had −1.0 ± 0.5 diopters, whereas guide dogs +0.38 ± 0.75 diopters. Police dogs tended to be slightly myopic and guide dogs were emmetropic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Despite finding a considerable number of ophthalmic abnormalities and refractive error, work performance was good with no signs of visual impairment in any dog. Regular ophthalmic examinations are advised for working dogs, and an exclusion of severely affected dogs from breeding programs is recommended.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cataract, Emmetropia, Guide dogs, Myopia, Police dogs.</p> Juliana Kravetz de Oliveira, Mariza Bortolini, Melissa Schaller, Rafaela Kava Schuchmann, Bret A. Moore, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Severe meningoencephalitis secondary to calvarial invasion of <i>Lagenidium giganteum</i> forma <i>caninum</i> in a dog <p><strong>Background</strong>: The oomycete <em>Lagenidium giganteum</em> forma caninum is an uncommon cause of severe dermal and subcutaneous infections in dogs with possible vascular invasion and other fatal sequelae. Infection within the central nervous system of affected dogs has not been previously reported.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 6-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated at a referral institution with a 2-month history of suspected fungal infection in the region of the right mandibular lymph node that was refractory to surgical resection and empiric medical therapy. Physical examination identified a 6-cm fluctuant subcutaneous mass caudoventral to the ramus of the right mandible and a second firm mass in the region of the right caudal maxilla. Lesional punch biopsies were submitted for fungal culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which subsequently<br>identified L. giganteum forma caninum infection. Initial treatment consisted of anti-inflammatory doses of prednisone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Four weeks following initial evaluation, the patient was presented with progressive neurological signs consistent with a forebrain lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed soft-tissue, contrastenhancing lesions ventral to the calvarium adjacent to the site of original surgical resection and throughout the brain. Humane euthanasia was elected, and postmortem examination was consistent with the extension of local disease from the right masseter muscle into the right ventral calvarium. Postmortem DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of the organism as <em>L. giganteum</em> forma <em>caninum.</em><br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This is the first reported case of intracranial lagenidiosis in the dog. PCR distinguished this species from other Lagenidium species and from oomycetes of other genera, such as <em>Pythium insidiosum </em>and<em> Paralagenidium karlingii</em>. Regional extension of cutaneous lagenidiosis should therefore be considered in cases with concurrent or spontaneous neurologic disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, <em>Lagenidium giganteum</em> forma caninum, Neurologic disease, Oomycete.</p> Justin Shmalberg, Patrick S. Moyle, William F. Craft, Stuart A. Walton Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 First molecular detection of <i>Plasmodium relictum</i> in <i>Anopheles sinensis</i> and <i>Armigeres subalbatus</i> <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Plasmodium relictum</em> is one of the most important avian malaria species, which is mainly seen in wild birds, with infections reported in more than 70 different species and at high prevalence.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of <em>Plasmodium spp</em>. in mosquitoes collected in China.<br><strong>Method:</strong> A Plasmodium -specific fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was established in this study to analyze five species of mosquitoes (1,620 <em>Culex pipiens pallens, 806 Aedes albopictus, 377 Armigeres subalbatus</em>, 168 <em>Anopheles sinensis</em>, and 80 <em>Culex tritaeniorhynchus</em>) collected in hand nets from homes in 25 provinces of China.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Only females originated from six provinces were determined to be positive (0.6%, 10/1,809). Plasmodium species were detected in three mosquito species, such as<em> C. pipiens</em> pallens (0.5%, 8/1,620),<em> A. sinensis</em> (0.6%, 1/168), and <em>A. subalbatus</em> (0.3%, 1/377). Of the three mosquito species positive for <em>P. relictum</em>, only<em> C. pipiens</em> pallens is known to feed on birds and is recognized as the natural vector of P. relictum.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This is the first time that P. relictum has been detected in <em>A. sinensis and A. subalbatus. P. relictum,</em> the agent of avian malaria, was present in mosquitoes in China, including mosquito species not previously thought to be the vectors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, China, Mosquito, <em>Plasmodium relictum</em>.</p> Jilei Zhang, Guangwu Lu, Patrick Kelly, Jing Li, Min Li, Jiawei Wang, Ke Huang, Haixiang Qiu, Jinfeng You, Rong Zhang, Yaoyao Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Chengming Wang Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genital abnormalities associated to lack of uterine adenogenesis or endometrial gland dysgenesis of female dromedary camels (<i>Camelus dromedarius</i>) <p><strong>Background</strong>: The developmental disruption of the müllerian duct and the endometrial dynamic can generate genital lesions that could contribute to infertility.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This paper discusses two cases of genital conditions associated to endometrial gland pathologies in nulliparous female camels.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Macroscopic examinations and histopathological description were performed on congenital and acquired genital abnormalities with endometrial gland anomalies.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The first case is endometrial gland agenesis associated to unilateral uterine aplasia, and the second case is endometrial gland dysgenesis associated to metritis. The prevalence of each case is estimated to be 0.6%. The most specific microscopic features associated to the endometrial gland agenesis were the presence of endometrial stromal proliferation and homogenous hyalinization of the myometrium. The acute metritis was associated to endometrial-activated stroma with focal infiltration with inflammatory cells on the endometrium and myometrium and the spontaneous endometrial gland dysgenesis.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study reveals the importance of congenital abnormalities during the routine reproductive examination of peripubertal animals, as well as the association of histopathological complementary examination for the research functional and inflammatory anomalies of the uterus. Genetic screening of breeders would be very important in the search for genetic risk factors associated with these congenital pathologies, which can be disseminated by reproductive biotechnologies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Adenogenesis, Camel, Metritis, Uterine aplasia, Uterine glands. </p> Djallel Eddine Gherissi, Ramzi Lamraoui, Faycel Chacha, Zoubir Bouzebda, Zoubir Bouzebda, Farida Afri Bouzebda, Christian Hanzen Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rapid identification and genotyping of the honeybee pathogen <i>Paenibacillus larvae</i> by combining culturing and multiplex quantitative PCR <p><strong>Background</strong>: American Foulbrood (AFB) is a devastating disease of honey bee (<em>Apis mellifera</em>) larvae caused by the spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium <em>Paenibacillus</em> larvae. In most countries, the law requires mandatory reporting of AFB to the veterinary authority.<br><strong>Aim and Methods</strong>: To speed up detection and genotyping of P. larvae spores, we compared different culturing protocols on Columbia sheep blood agar and developed a new multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction to distinguish between the two relevant <em>P. larvae</em> genotypes enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) I and ERIC II.<br><strong>Results and Conclusion</strong>: As confirmed by <em>P. larvae</em> reference strains and field isolates, the new identification and genotyping protocol halves the time of current workflows, lessens labor-intension, allows a higher throughput of samples for monitoring, and permits a faster intervention to prevent the spread of AFB.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> American Foulbrood, ERIC genotyping, Multiplex quantitative PCR, Paenibacillus larvae, Rapid detection.</p> Hannes Beims, Martina Janke, Werner von der Ohe, Michael Steinert Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Changes in intraocular pressure, horizontal pupil diameter, and tear production during the use of topical 1% cyclopentolate in cats and rabbits <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cyclopentolate is not commonly used as mydriatic drug in veterinary medicine because of limited data on the local and systemic effects in animals.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the effects of topical 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on intraocular pressure (IOP), horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) and tear production in the cat and rabbit’s eye during the first hour and up to 36 hours after treatment.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> One drop of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride was used in the left eye in 10 clinically and ophthalmologically healthy domestic cats and 10 rabbits. IOP and HPD were recorded every 5 minutes during the first hour, then every 2 hours during the following 12-hour period, and at 24 and 36 hours after application. Schirmer tear test (STT) was measured at 30 and 60 minute after treatment, then in same time points as IOP and HPD. Rebound tonometer (TonoVet®) was used to assess IOP, Jameson calliper to measure HPD and STT to determine the tear production.<br><strong>Results:</strong> 1% cyclopentolate increased IOP in cats, reaching a maximum (28.1 ± 5.4 mmHg) at T50 and in rabbits at T25 (16.7 ± 1.3 mmHg). Maximal mydriasis in cats was observed at T40 and lasted 24–36 hours, but in rabbits at T25, and returned to pre-treatment values at T10h–T12h. In cats, STT decreased in both eyes 30 minutes after treatment and remained lower throughout the 36-hour period. In rabbits, STT decreased in the treated eye 30 minutes after treatment, but all following STT measurements returned to normal pre-treatment levels.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Study showed novel data about the effects of 1% cyclopentolate to IOP, HPD, STT in cats and rabbits. Cyclopentolate in cats caused mydriasis 20–40 minutes after the treatment by increasing IOP, at the same time, pupil diameter reached pre-treatment values 24–36 hours after treatment. In rabbit’s mydriasis occurred faster, 10–25 minutes after treatment without significant IOP increase and mydriasis lasted 10–12 hours. Significant STT decrease was recorded in cats, but more likely were connected to stress factors. This drug could be considered as a therapeutical<br>alternative in rabbit more than in cats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cyclopentolate, Horizontal pupil diameter, Intraocular pressure, Tear production.</p> Liga Kovalcuka, Madara Nikolajenko Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Combining non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance thoracic ductography with vascular contrast-enhanced computed tomography to identify the canine thoracic duct <p><strong>Background</strong>: In humans, visualization of the thoracic duct by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been attempted, and recent advances have enabled clinicians to visualize the thoracic duct configuration in a less invasive manner. Moreover, MRI does not require contrast media, and it enables visualization of morphological details of the thoracic structures. In veterinary practice, the thoracic duct has not been visualized three dimensionally in MRI.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to assess the performance of our magnetic resonance thoracic ductography (MRTD) technique to visualize the thoracic duct and the surrounding 3D anatomical structures by combining MRTD and vascular contrastenhanced thoracic computed tomography (CT) images in dogs.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Five adult male beagle dogs (11.4–12.8 kg) were included in this study. Sagittal and transverse T2-weighted images were scanned in MRI. Scanning in MRTD used a single-shot fast spin echo sequence with a respiratory gate. CT was performed after the intravenous injection of contrast medium. All MRTD and CT images were merged using a workstation.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The thoracic ducts were identified in MRTD images of all dogs, and the surrounding anatomical structures were located with the aid of contrast-enhanced thoracic CT. In all dogs, the thoracic ducts coursed along the rightdorsal side of the aorta, cranially from the L2 level. Thereafter, these bent to the left side at the aortic arch and curved at the left external jugular vein angle. A comparison of the number of thoracic ducts at each vertebra between transverse T2WI and MRTD did not reveal any significant differences for all vertebrae.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results from our study suggest that MRTD using the single-shot fast spin echo sequence could be a useful tool for visualization of the thoracic duct. Furthermore, the image merged from MRTD and vascular-enhanced images provided detailed anatomical annotation of the thorax. The MRTD protocol described in this study is safe and easily adaptable, without the need for contrast medium injection into the lymph system. In addition, the images fused from MRTD and vascular contrast-enhanced CT image of the thorax could provide detailed anatomical annotations for preoperative planning.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Computed tomography, Dog, Magnetic resonance imaging, Thoracic duct, Thoracic ductography. </p> Kenji Kutara, Teppei Kanda, Noritaka Maeta, Yohei Mochizuki, Fumiko Ono, Yoshiki Itoh, Taketoshi Asanuma Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 <I>Giardia duodenalis</I> infection in dogs affected by primary chronic enteropathy <p><strong>Background</strong>: Canine primary chronic enteropathy (CE) includes a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by chronic gastrointestinal signs.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study evaluated the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis infection in primary CE-affected dogs.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Forty-seven CE-affected dogs of different age and sex were enrolled in the study. For each dog, frequency of defecation, fecal consistency, and eventual fecal abnormalities were evaluated. A clinical scoring index of CE severity (clinical chronic enteropathy activity index) was also assessed, and the type of enteropathy was retrospectively classified. For parasitological analysis, fresh fecal samples collected from each dog were examined by fresh and Lugol stained smears, flotation test, and a rapid immunoassay. <em>Giardia duodenalis</em> genotypes were identified by molecular<br>analysis. Differences of clinical parameters between <em>G. duodenalis</em> positive and <em>G. duodenalis</em> negative dogs were statistically evaluated.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Among the CE canine patients, 16 out of 47 (34%) dogs were found positive for <em>G. duodenalis</em> and assemblages C and D were identified. No statistical differences emerged according to the types of CE between <em>G. duodenalispositive</em> and G. duodenalis-negative dog groups. The clinical index of CE severity was indicative of significant less severe clinical forms in <em>G. duodenalis</em>-positive dogs (p = 0.037).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Results here obtained shows how <em>G. duodenalis</em> may be present in primary CE-affected dogs and further investigations are needed to clarify the real significance of mild clinical presentation in <em>G. duodenalis</em>-positive dogs affected by CE.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Canine, Clinical forms, Genotypes, Giardiasis, Primary chronic enteropathy.</p> Stefania Perrucci, Federica Berrilli, Cristina Procopio, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, Alessio Pierini, Veronica Marchetti Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Seroprevalence and molecular detection of Newcastle disease virus in backyard chickens in Tripoli, Libya <p><strong>Background</strong>: Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease that affecting many avian species all over the world.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: ND has been successfully controlled by the vaccination of commercial poultry in Libya. However, there was a lack of information about the situation of ND in backyard chickens. Therefore, this study determined the prevalence of ND in backyard chickens in different locations of Tripoli.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A total number of 280 cloacal swabs (190 in summer and 90 in winter) and 412 sera were collected from non-vaccinated backyard chicken flocks in different geographical locations within the area of Tripoli namely Qasr Ben Ghashier, Al-Sawani, Souq Al-Gomaa, Tajourah, Ein Zara, and Janzour. Cloacal swabs and sera were tested by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ELISA, respectively.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of ND virus (NDV) infection in backyard chickens in different locations of Tripoli during summer and winter was 45% using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Except in Qasr Ben Ghashier, the prevalence in summer season was significantly higher than in winter (X2 = 46.13, p ≥ 0.00001). ELISA test revealed 218 positive out of 412 tested samples with total prevalence of 53% across the city of Tripoli in all regions. Obviously, Qasr Ben Ghashier had significantly (X2 = 74.09, p ≥ 0.00001) the highest prevalence (82%) of NDV specific antibodies followed<br>by Tajourah (68%).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study demonstrated the situation of ND in backyard chicken highlighting the necessity of a comprehensive vaccination plan for backyard chickens.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Backyard chickens, ELISA, Newcastle disease, Prevalence, Real time PCR.</p> Emhemed A. Gedara, Hesham A. Alseed, Abdulwahab M. Kammon, Abdunaser S. Dayhum, Mohamed A. Benothman, Soleman O. Al-Garib, Ibrahim M. Eldaghayes Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Validation of an optical, computer-assisted technique for intraoperative tracking of 3-dimensional canine stifle joint motion <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is the most common orthopedic pathology in dog and in men. In human, optical computer-assisted technique is considered as a repeatable and reliable method for the biomechanical assessment of joint kinematics and laxity in case of CCL surgery.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the repeatability and reliability afforded by clinical tests in terms of laxity measured by means of a computer-assisted tracking system in two canine CCL conditions: CCL-Intact, CCL-Deficient. <br><strong>Methods:</strong> Fourteen fresh frozen canine stifles were passively subjected to Internal/External (IE) rotation at 120° of flexion and Cranial drawer test (CC). To quantify the repeatability and the reliability, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the mean percent error were evaluated (Δ r %).<br><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed a very good intra-class correlation, before and after CCL resection for kinematics tests. It was found a minimum ICC = 0.73 during the IE rotation in CCL-Intact and a maximum value of ICC = 0.97 for the CC displacement in CC-Deficient. IE rotation with CCL-Intact is the condition with the greatest Δ r % = 14%, while the lowest Δ r % = 6% was obtained for CC displacement in CCL-Deficient.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The presented work underlined the possibility of using a computer-assisted method also for biomechanical studies concerning stifle kinematics and laxity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Computer-assisted technique, Cranial cruciate ligament, Dog, Stifle joint. </p> Cecilia Signorelli, Filippo Cinti, Stefano Zaffagnini, Luciano Pisoni, Nicola Francesco Lopomo Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genomic characteristics of classical swine fever virus strains of bovine origin according to primary and secondary sequence–structure analysis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), species member of the family Flaviviridae, is generally considered restricted to domestic and wild suids. The circulation of CFSV has been detected in cattle herds in China and India. Natural infection appeared associated with clinical signs in some cases.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The secondary structures of the internal ribosome entry site in the 5ʹ untranslated region (UTR) were used for the genomic characterization of bovine strains.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Sequences have been compared to the representative CSFV strains isolated from pigs, vaccines, and contaminants from porcine cell lines and an ovine strain isolated in Spain.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The observed sequences from cattle showed a genetic relatedness with live-attenuated vaccine strains used in pigs. Sequence characteristics of the Chinese strain S171 are genetically distant from the previously reported CSFV genotypes, suggesting a new outgroup in the species, described for the first time, and named CSFV-d. Other Chinese strains were genetically closely related to CSFV genotype a2 (Alfort type) pig strains. Indian strains, reported from the states of Tamil Nadu and Meghalaya, were genetically closely related to CSFV genotype a1 (Brescia type) and a5 pig strains, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These preliminary observations are new and relevant in countries, where CSFV control and eradication strategies are applied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cattle, Classical swine fever virus, Pestivirus, Secondary structure.</p> Massimo Giangaspero, Shu-Qin Zhang Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preliminary clinical experience of low-level laser therapy for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis-associated pain: A retrospective investigation on 17 dogs <p><strong>Background</strong>: Osteoarthritis (OA) is common in dogs and causes chronic pain that affects the quality of life and may not respond to analgesics.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) would improve the quality of life and help reducing systemic analgesics, in dogs with OA.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Seventeen client-owned dogs diagnosed with OA and associated pain were included. The diagnosis of OA was confirmed by orthopedic and radiographic examination. Pain was evaluated in each dog with the canine brief pain inventory (CBPI), compiled by the dog owners, as well as with a visual analog scale (VAS) and the colorado state canine chronic pain scale, used by the clinician. The LLLT was performed weekly in each study dog, for a total period of 6 weeks. The CBPI was then repeated at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after the first laser session, whereas the VAS was reassessed at weeks 2 and 6. The dogs were observed for the occurrence of laser-related side effects.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Both CBPI and VAS were significantly reduced after the first laser session (9.2 ± 3.8 and 5.2 ± 1.1, respectively) compared to pretreatment values (11.8 ± 3.6 and 7.6 ± 0.9, respectively; and p = 0.018 and p &lt; 0.001, respectively) and continued to decrease over time until the end of the therapy. Based on these results and improved function, as assessed by the orthopedic surgeon, the pharmacological analgesic therapy was reduced by the clinician at week 2 in 13 of 17 dogs. Laser-related side effects were not observed.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This retrospective report provides a basis for future investigations, needed to clarify whether laser therapy may be beneficial to treat canine OA-associated pain. The preliminary findings are promising and suggest that LLLT may help reducing the analgesic administration and improving client satisfaction and the quality of life of dogs with OA.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Canine osteoarthritis, Chronic pain, Low-intensity laser therapy, Orthopedic pain.</p> Loris Barale, Paolo Monticelli, Massimo Raviola, Chiara Adami Copyright (c) Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000