Open Veterinary Journal <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal. (Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes) (Prof. Salah Azwai) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 12:47:09 +0000 OJS 60 Radiographic parameters of the digit in a cohort population of Amiata donkeys <p><strong>Background:</strong> The most common musculoskeletal conditions reported in donkeys are related to the foot. Radiographic examinations are clinically important in the diagnosis of foot abnormalities and are commonly used. However, few studies have been conducted to establish the normal radiographic appearance of a donkey’s foot. <strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the radiographic features of the front digit in healthy Amiata donkeys. Methods: Radiographic examinations were performed on 56 forefeet of 28 Amiata donkeys. Three radiographic views of each front foot were taken: lateromedial, dorsopalmar and dorso 65°proximal/palmarodistal oblique. Seventeen angular and linear radiographic parameters and the crena solearis were evaluated in all forefeet, and 18 morphometric parameters were evaluated in 16 out of 56 forefeet. Statistical analysis was carried out on all the measures assessed. <strong>Results:</strong> The radiographic appearance of the forefoot was ascertained, and data were reported as median ± standard error, minimum and maximum values. No statistical differences were obtained between the right and left forefeet. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The normal baseline parameters of the forefeet of Amiata donkeys were recorded and described and compared with other donkey breeds and horses. The findings highlighted that the donkey breed affects the radiographic parameters of the digit.</p> Irene Nocera, Benedetta Aliboni, Caterina Puccinelli, Giulia Pietrini, Micaela Sgorbini, Simonetta Citi, Giorgio Ricardi Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Metabolic markers of myocardium insulin resistance in dogs with heart failure <p><strong>Background:</strong> Heart failure syndrome is an aspect of primary or secondary heart disease and is associated with decompensation, formation, and activation of pathological interactions between regulation systems. This results in myocardial energy metabolism alteration. This study was carried out to defy some metabolic aspects of myocardial tissue insulin resistance (IRM) development in canine heart failure.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the myocardial tissue concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glucose transporters 1 and 4, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), hexokinase 2, insulin receptor (InsR), and adropin (ADR) protein and to screen metabolic changes and IRM in canine myocardium with heart failure.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> We studied 28 dogs of different sexes, ages, and breeds. Groups were formed according to primary pathology: apparently healthy dogs (HD, <em>n</em> = 6); dogs with CDVD (CDVDD, <em>n</em> = 8); dogs with DCM (DCMD, <em>n</em> = 6); and dogs with doxorubicin chemotherapy and doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy (DoxCMD, <em>n</em> = 8). Animals in the study were diagnosed for primary disease by standard methods and algorithms. Animals were euthanized due to incurable neurological disease, refractory heart failure, or by owners will. The material was obtained immediately after death, fixed in liquid nitrogen, and stored in −80°C refrigerator. Studied proteins concentrations were analyzed in a specialized research laboratory, using ELISA kits, provided by Cloud-Clone Corp.<br><strong>Results:</strong> ATP, GLUT1, and GLUT4 concentrations in myocardial tissue from the valvular disease group did not differ from the HD group. In CDVD, we found depression of PDH, hexokinase II (HX2), and ADR concentrations in comparison to HD. InsR was significantly lower in the CDVD and DoxCMD groups in comparison to the HD group, but in the DCM group, it was twofold higher than in the HD group. In the DCMD and DoxCMD groups, all parameters were lower than in the HD group. ATP, HX2, ADR, GLUT1, and GLUT4 were higher in the CDVD group, than in the DCM and DoxCM groups. PDH in the CDVD and DoxCM groups did not differ. PDH was depleted in the DCM to CDVD and DoxCM groups. InsR did not differ between the CDVD and DoxCM groups, but was upregulated in the DCM to CDVD and DoxCM groups.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Development of myocardial tissue IRM is a part of the structural, functional and metabolic remodeling in dogs with heart failure of different etiology. At the late stages, we found significant changes in energy supply availability and production in the myocardium.</p> Dmitrij Arkadievich Oleynikov Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dural sac localization using myelography and its application to the lumbosacral epidural in dogs <p><strong>Background:</strong> The techniques described for the identification of the lumbosacral (LS) epidural space in dogs do not guarantee the needle position or an accidental subarachnoid puncture, especially in small size dogs.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the relationship between body weight and the location of the dural sac (DS) using myelography in dogs, and to determine the possibility of subarachnoid puncture during LS epidural based on the position of the DS.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Four masked observers evaluated 70 myelographic studies of dogs, annotating the vertebrae where the DS ended, if it was localized before or after the LS space, and if accidental subarachnoid puncture during LS epidural injection was possible (yes/no). Body weight (kg) was categorized into: less than 10 kg, between 10 and 20 kg, and more than 20 kg and was also converted to body surface area (BSA) as a continuous variable.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The DS ended at the LS space or caudally in 50% of dogs. There was a statistically significant difference between the position of the DS and the dog’s BSA (<em>p</em> = 0.001). The DS ended caudal to the LS space in 72.7% of dogs weighing &lt;10 kg, in 25% of dogs between 10 and 20 kg and in 15% of dogs in the &gt;20 kg category. The observers considered a possible subarachnoid puncture during LS epidural in 69.7% of patients &lt;10 kg, 16.6% on those between 10 and 20 kg, and in 11.7% of the dogs &gt;20 kg.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The DS ended caudal to the LS space in almost 3/4 dogs in the &lt;10 kg category, so accidental subarachnoid puncture during LS epidural is highly possible in this weight range.</p> Ana Zapata, Carlos Ros, Elena Ríos Álvarez, Myriam Martin, Alejandra García De Carellán Mateo Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Otodectic and bacterial etiology of feline otitis externa in Tripoli, Libya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder with a multifactorial complex etiology.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of different etiological agents, particularly the parasitic and bacterial, responsible for the cases of feline otitis externa in Tripoli, Libya, and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates from those cases.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Cerumen and otic discharges of the suspected cats were collected for parasite detection and bacterial culture. Kirby–Bauer’s disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that otodectic mites and bacterial causes were equally the most prevalent in those cases, with a prevalence of 47.1% each. <em>Otodectes cynotis</em> infestation was more frequently bilateral and severe. <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp. were the most prevalent among bacterial causes (75%), followed by <em>Proteus</em> spp. (16.6%) and <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. (8.4%). Norfloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective antimicrobials against bacterial isolates, as they were effective against 83.3% and 70.8% of isolates, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Otodectes cynotis</em> infestation and staphylococcal infections constituted the most common etiology of feline otitis externa in Tripoli, Libya, and norfloxacin represented a cogent antibacterial for the treatment of otitis externa.</p> Murad A. Hiblu, Omar M. Ellraiss, Elfurgani S. Karim, Rabia A. Elmishri, Enass M. Duro, Abdulnasser A. Altaeb, Emad M. Bennour Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective evaluation of surgical outcomes after closure of durotomy in eight dogs affected by spinal subarachnoid diverticulum <p><strong>Background:</strong> Canine spinal subarachnoid diverticulum has been studied since 1968 and a few advancements have been made with regard to the treatment of this disease. Several surgical techniques have been proposed which include durectomy, fenestration, and/or marsupilization with the latter two regarded as the more favorable surgical treatments. <strong>Aim:</strong> In this retrospective study, we evaluated the closure of the durotomy incision in the treatment of canine spinal subarachnoid diverticulum. <strong>Methods:</strong> We retrospectively evaluated eight dogs with clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with spinal subarachnoid diverticulum located in the cervical and thoracolumbar area. This was to determine whether the fenestration with closure of durotomy was superior to the marsupialization technique. In all dogs, fenestration and removal of subarachnoid adherences alongside closure of the durotomy were carried out.&nbsp; <strong>Results:</strong> Mild post-operative deterioration was observed in all dogs. Follow-up from 7 to 36 months indicated a satisfactory outcome. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> We conclude that the closure of durotomy has similar short-term and long-term outcomes compared to the previous reported studies. These results suggest that the closure of durotomy is a viable technique for spinal subarachnoid diverticulum.<br><br></p> Simone Spinillo, Lorenzo Golini, Massimo Mariscoli, Luca Motta Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative growth response related to hair mineral analysis in dromedary camel calves <p><strong>Background:</strong> The dromedary camel plays a significant role in supporting the livelihood of pastoral and agropastoral systems, as well as a source of income for the national economy in arid regions. <strong>Aim:</strong> The current study was executed to check the comparative growth response in relation to hair mineral status in Marecha camel calves reared under an intensive management system and an extensive management system in Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Twelve male and female Camelus dromedarius calves of almost the same weight and age were divided into two groups of 6 each (3 male and 3 female). The calves of the first group were maintained at the Camel Breeding and Research Station, Rakh Mahni, in a semi-open housing system, while the second group was maintained in available housing under field conditions. Calves in the first group were fed concentrate at the rate of 1 kg/head/day along with gram straw (Cicer arientinum) ad libitum, while calves in the second group were allowed to graze/browse for 10 hours daily along with household refusals, including kitchen wastes. Water was provided twice a day. Impressum’s digital weighing scale was used for fortnightly weighing. Data collected on different parameters were subjected to statistical analysis with 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments under a completely randomized design.<br><strong>Results:</strong> After the 120-day trial period, the mean body weight and average daily gain of male and female calves were significantly increased (p &lt; 0.05) in IMS as 80.8 ± 2.7, 77.8 ± 2.7 kg and 0.67 ± 0.02, 0.65 ± 0.02 kg/days than EMS as 64.5 ± 2.6, 52.9 ± 2.6 kg and 0.54 ± 0.02, 0.44 ± 0.02 kg/days. Intake of crop residues (p &lt; 0.05) was found to be 6.9 ± 0.45 and 6.4 ± 0.45 kg/days for male and female calves in IMS, respectively, and 3.5 ± 0.23 for male and female calves in EMS, respectively. The conversion index g/kg average daily intake was 97.1, 101.5 and 154.3, 125.7 for male and female calves in IMS and EMS, respectively. Regarding hair mineral status, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn concentrations were found to be significantly different (p &lt; 0.05) among calf groups in IMS and EMS.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study indicates that wool analysis and management of weight gain in camel calves should be further explored to support increased meat supply in arid regions.</p> Asim Faraz, Abdul Waheed, Ayman Balla Mustafa, Nasir Ali Tauqir, Ahmed Omar Eldeib Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Long-term outcome following cranial biceps brachii tendon transposition in a dog with a traumatic cranial scapulohumeral luxation <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cranial luxation of the scapulohumeral has been rarely reported in dogs and there is limited information available regarding surgical management of this condition, particularly with respect to long-term functional outcomes.<br><strong>Case Description:</strong> This report describes the successful resolution of a chronic traumatic cranial scapulohumeral joint luxation in a dog that was stabilized by cranial transposition of the biceps brachii tendon of origin. At surgery, an osteotomy of the greater tubercle was performed and a trough was made in the exposed bed of the osteotomy. The transverse humeral ligament was incised, and the bicipital tendon was levered into the trough and secured in that location by reattachment of the greater tubercle using multiple Kirschner wires and a figure-of-eight tension band wire. Postoperatively, the dog was maintained in a Spica splint for 2 weeks. Although surgical reduction was performed 4 months after the original injury, the luxation did not recur and the dog did not have appreciable lameness 14 months following the surgery.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although cranial transposition of the bicipital tendon is an invasive procedure, this dog’s scapulohumeral luxation did not recur and the procedure yielded an excellent long-term functional outcome.</p> Lauren N. Barber, Daniel D. Lewis, Erin G. Porter, Lindsay H. Elam Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ultrasound-guided serratus plane block as an effective adjunct to systemic analgesia in four dogs undergoing thoracotomy <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ultrasound-guided serratus plane block (UGSPB) is a loco-regional anesthesia technique designed to desensitize the thoracic wall. It is a compartmental block, where local anesthetic is delivered to the fascial, intermuscular plane. Since its original description in humans, two cadaveric veterinary studies, redefining the technique, have been performed. Taking into account the successful use of the UGSPB in human medicine, we employed the veterinary description to perform this block in four dogs undergoing thoracotomy. The case series described below aims to share our experience of the clinical application of this new loco-regional anesthesia technique in dogs. <strong>Case Description:</strong> Four dogs, with different underlying medical conditions underwent cranial lateral thoracotomy. The analgesia protocol consisted of intravenous methadone and UGSPB performed half an hour before the beginning of the procedure. The cardiovascular system was closely monitored for any signs of nociception. Fentanyl, although available as rescue analgesia, was not required in any of these cases as no signs of nociception were present. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first veterinary clinical report using the UGSPB as a part of a multimodal analgesia protocol in dogs undergoing thoracotomy. Based on this observation, UGSPB has the potential to prevent nociception and reduce the intraoperative opioid requirements in dogs undergoing thoracotomy. A prospective randomized clinical trial is required to confirm these promising results.</p> Iago Asorey, Beatrice Sambugaro, Rebecca J. Bhalla, Maja Drozdzynska Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 What are the potential biomarkers that should be considered in diagnosing and managing canine chronic inflammatory enteropathies? <p>Chronic inflammatory enteropathies in dogs are characterized by persistent or recurrent gastrointestinal signs that lastfor more than 3 weeks. Despite unclear etiopathogenesis, it is considered that a genetic predisposition associated withenvironmental factors, such as dietary antigens and intestinal microbiota, might induce an abnormal immune responsein the host. The diagnosis of this condition requires full investigation in order to exclude all other possible causes. Currently, the observation of clinical signs associated with histopathologic evaluation and systematic therapeutic trials is the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic enteropathies. Furthermore, diagnosis, monitoring the disease progression, and treatment response evaluation can be exhausting, since this whole process is time-consuming, costly, and partially invasive. Therefore, biomarkers appear as non-invasive tools, which can be useful in evaluating gastrointestinal function, identifying the presence of the disease and assessing its natural progression, monitoring gastrointestinal inflammation, predicting response to treatment, and clinical outcomes. Over the past decade, several studies were conducted in order to explore the clinical utility of biomarkers. Thus, the aim of this dissertation is to provide an overview of the biomarkers considered relevant in the diagnosis and management of dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathies. The biomarkers addressed in this study may be serological, present in urine and feces, or even tissue-derived. This study argues that biomarkers, in particular calprotectin and calgranulin C, have great potential to be used in clinical practice in the diagnosis and management of affected dogs. However, a single biomarker cannot assuredly predict disease severity, progression, response to treatment, and clinical outcomes. Therefore, in order to achieve greater accuracy, it would be beneficial if these tools are used in conjunction with contemporary ones. Future research is needed with the aim to better determine the usefulness of these tools in chronic inflammatory enteropathies in dogs.</p> Carina Sacoor, Luís Meireles Barros, Liliana Montezinho Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental study comparing burn healing effects of raw South African Shea butter and the samples from a Libyan market <p><strong>Background:</strong> The fat extracted from the nut of the African Shea tree (<em>Vitellaria paradoxa</em>) is called Shea butter. It has multiple uses at the local level as it is used in cosmetic products and as a cocoa butter substitute in chocolate industries. It has a high nutritious value and is also a valuable product on the local, national, and international markets, making it the ideal candidate to research and invest in.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study is a comparative experimental study of the possible burn healing effects between imported South African raw Shea butter and samples in a Libyan market.<br><strong>Method:</strong> The control samples were brought from South Africa (Benin traditional markets). A total of 18 different samples were collected from different sale centers in Tripoli, including pharmacies, beauty shops, and spices shops, in addition to one sample brought from Poland. Animal experiment on burn healing effect was carried out on nine male Sprague Dawley (350–400 g) rats aged 6–8 weeks old. After shaving the animal’s dorsum hair, a metal cube was used to create a deep second degree burn wound, and the cube was heated to 100°C for 20 seconds. Medication with Shea butter (control, T1, and T2) was initiated daily for one for these groups by the application of a thin film of the Shea butter samples on the burned areas. On days 1, 3, and 7, the rats were anesthetised and a sample from the burned scar tissue and skin adjacent were evaluated using pathological parameters.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The histological study indicates that the use of Shea butter T1 as topical treatment induces an immune response, which enhances the form of the presence of a large number of inflammatory cells in the epidermis and dermis layers. The treatment of burned skin with T2 lasted for 72 hours and it showed slightly significant healing in the normal structure of proliferative granulation tissue with accumulation of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells surrounding the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. Small areas of the epidermis which formed few layers were observed and some hair roots were grown. This was well seen in cases of T1 and T2. Shea butter bought as raw might have a bad effect on burned skin. Conclusion: Shea butter bought as raw might have bad effect on burned skin. On the other hand, the sample from Poland had a therapeutic effect, which was because of the additives such as avocado oil, grape seed oil, and others.</p> Soad A. Treesh, Sakina S. Saadawi, Khairi A. Alennabi, Suher M. Aburawi, Kholoud Lotfi, Amal S. Ben Musa Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Canine cognitive dysfunction patients have reduced total hippocampal volume compared with aging control dogs: A comparative magnetic resonance imaging study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hippocampal atrophy is a key pathologic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of human Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Hippocampal atrophy has not been documented via MRI in canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD), which is considered as the dog model of human AD.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this retrospective comparative volumetric MRI study was to compare total hippocampal volumes between successfully aging (control) dogs and dogs diagnosed with CCD.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Mimics® software was used to derive total hippocampal volumes and total brain volumes from the MRI studies of 42 aging dogs (≥ 9 years): 16 dogs diagnosed with CCD and 26 successfully aging controls. Hippocampal volumes were normalized to total brain volume and these values were compared between groups using Mann–Whitney U tests.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Total hippocampal volume normalized to total brain volume was significantly less for CCD patients compared with control dogs (p = 0.04).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study suggest that – similar to human AD – hippocampal atrophy is a pathological feature of CCD. This finding has potential importance for both investigating disease mechanisms related to dementia as well as future hippocampal-targeted therapies.</p> Curtis Wells Dewey, Mark Rishniw, Philippa J. Johnson, Simon Platt, Kelsey Robinson, Joseph Sackman, Marissa O'Donnell Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The use of small-bore wire-guided chest drains for the management of feline pyothorax: A retrospective case series <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pyothorax in cats is routinely managed, at least initially, with thoracic tube placement associated with systemic antimicrobial administration. Traditionally, large-bore trocar-type thoracostomy tubes have preferentially been used for the drainage of thick material from the pleural space. In recent years, the use of small-bore wire-guided thoracic drains has increased in both small animals and in humans. Few studies have highlighted the efficacy of smallbore wire-guided thoracostomy tubes.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study was to describe the use of small-bore wire-guided thoracostomy tubes in feline pyothorax in terms of efficacy, safety, and outcome.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Cats with pyothorax managed with small-bore thoracostomy tubes (SBTTs) (2015–2018) were retrospectively studied. The number of drains inserted, the need for anesthesia and analgesia for chest tube placement and maintenance, and related major and minor complications were reviewed. Clinical data, diagnostic results, treatment, and outcome were recorded.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Ten cats were enrolled. Thoracostomy tube placement was unilateral in 7/10 cats, despite the presence of bilateral effusion in 9/10 cats, and required sedation (8/10) or anesthesia (2/10). Three cats experienced minor complications during the chest tube insertion, including self-limiting pneumothorax (1/3) and malpositioning (2/3). One cat had a major complication (non-functional malposition) requiring reposition of the drain. Pain management was adequately achieved using opioids (8/10) or opioids plus nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (2/10). Partial<br>chest tube occlusion occurred in three cases and it was resolved with lavage. In one case, the occlusion was complete, requiring drain removal. Three out of 10 cats were treated medically, combining thoracostomy tubes and antibiotics, while 7/10 cats underwent surgery. All the cats survived.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> SBTTs represent a safe and effective option for the initial management of feline pyothorax. In fact, mainly minor complications were reported during insertion and usage. The SBTTs were well tolerated by the cats with a satisfactory performance in terms of exudate drainage in most cases. The combined use of a small-bore thoracostomy drain together with the common practice of surgical treatment might have resulted in the successful management of the cases presented.</p> Sara Del Magno, Armando Foglia, Deborah De Bastiani, Veronica Cola, Luciano Pisoni, Lisa Grassato, Marco Pelizzola, Roberto Troia, Massimo Giunti Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated from cats and dogs <p><strong>Background:</strong> Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are an emerging global problem with serious public health concern.<br><strong>Aims:</strong> This study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Staphylococcus species isolated from healthy and clinical cats and dogs.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Nasal swab samples were collected from animals and processed using selective and semi-selective mediums. Presumptive isolates were subjected to biochemical testing and analyzed using the Phoenix automated identification and susceptibility testing system. PCRs protocols were used to screen for mecA and pvl genes.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In total, 151 pets (103 cats and 48 dogs) were enrolled, of which 14 dogs (29%) and 24 cats (23%) were colonized with various Staphylococcus species mainly originated from healthy animals. A total of 38 staphylococci isolates were collected and distributed between 24 coagulase-negative and 14 coagulase-positive staphylococci. Only 13 staphylococci strains were identified as MRS, out of which only five isolates expressed that the mecA gene exclusively originated from healthy pets.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This is the first study reporting the prevalence and colonization status of staphylococci species and MRS strains isolated from cats and dogs in Libya. The study reports important information of medical and clinical importance on antimicrobial and multidrug resistance of different staphylococci strains, particularly the coagulase negative species.</p> Hiam R Elnageh, Murad A. Hiblu, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Yousef M. Abouzeed, Mohamed O. Ahmed Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Technique description: Incisionless ultrasound-assisted biceps tenotomy in dogs <p><strong>Background:</strong> Bicipital tendinitis and/or tendinopathy is a common cause of forelimb lameness in dogs, particularly in larger and more active patients. Although conservative treatment aimed at resolving discomfort and preserving the tendon remains the primary therapeutic goal, in certain cases it is necessary to surgically transect the tendon to eliminate pain and lameness. Transection of the tendon can be performed by open arthrotomy, arthroscopically, or percutaneously using a scalpel blade. This paper examines the utility of a modified percutaneous approach using a<br>hypodermic needle in place of a scalpel blade, under ultrasound-guided assistance.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To develop and describe a surgical technique for performing a percutaneous biceps tenotomy using a hypodermic needle under ultrasound guidance <strong>Method:</strong> The technique was piloted using the shoulders of 12 cadaver dogs initially and once developed, then applied to another 12 cadavers. The final procedure was performed on a total of 22 shoulders. Assessments were recorded on time to complete the procedure, completeness of bicipital tendon transection, and presence of any iatrogenic damage to associated joint structures. <strong>Results:</strong> Procedure time averaged fewer than 2 minutes. Complete transection was achieved in 20 out of 22 of the shoulders, with evidence of incomplete transection discernable by ultrasound imaging in the remaining two shoulders. One cadaver shoulder experienced iatrogenic damage secondary to incorrect hypodermic needle angulation. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Percutaneous biceps tenotomy using a hypodermic needle is an efficient and straightforward procedure. The lack of a surgical incision makes it the least invasive technique devised so far. Ultrasound imaging allows the<br>practitioner to assess the completeness of the transection increasing precision.</p> David Lane, Teresa Schiller Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Medial pantarsal arthrodesis with Compact UniLock 2.0 locking plate system in a cat <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pantarsal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure carried out for the treatment of tarsal joint disease, including severe osteoarthritis with intractable pain in the tarsocrural joint, tarsal fractures, shearing injuries, tarsocrural joint instability, and failure of the common calcaneal tendon. Although medial plating is preferable, the high incidence of post-surgery complications is possible. Using thin, pre-contouring or easy contouring, locking plates might reduce the incidence of such complications. However, to date, there are no pre-contouring and dedicated locking plates for<br>pantarsal arthrodesis with medial placement.<br><strong>Case Description:</strong> The case of an 18-month-old female stray European cat has been referred because of a severe tibiotarsal injury improperly treated with an intramedullary pin. The patient was submitted for medial pantarsal arthrodesis, performed with the Compact UniLock 2.0™ locking plate systema (DePuy Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland). The authors hypothesized that this particularly innovative osteosynthesis system could present advantages compared to the systems already in use for medial pantarsal arthrodesis and therefore reduce the risk of complications.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This innovative titanium locking system, because of its versatile contour function and thinness, allowed the good functional recovery of the limb and showed numerous advantages over traditional systems.</p> Luca Pennasilico, Riccardo Botto, Caterina Di Bella, Angela Palumbo Piccionello Copyright (c) Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000