Open Veterinary Journal <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal. (Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes) (Prof. Salah Azwai) Tue, 18 Apr 2023 13:51:43 +0000 OJS 60 Morphological, histological, and histochemical study of the adult golden hamster (<i>Mesocricetus auratus</i>) spleen <p><strong>Background</strong>: The golden hamster is a choice model for investigating many visceral and splenic infections and neoplastic and retrospective lesions.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: To study hamsters' spleen's morphological, histological, and histochemical structure.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Samples were collected from eight healthy adult golden hamsters and then fixed with 10% buffered formalin. Later, samples were processed, sectioned, and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin as well as Masson’s Trichrome stain. Other slides were further stained with Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian blue 2.5 stain (PAS) for histochemical evolution; the gross measurement was performed for the splenic length, width, and thickness, while the histological measures included the splenic capsular and trabecula thickness, diameter of white pulp follicles, splenic sinusoids and central arteries and proportion of white and red pulps.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The macroscopic findings revealed that the spleen was red-brown lanciform on the left side of the dorsolateral abdominal wall. The morphological measurements for splenic length, width, and thickness were 26.6 ± 7.67, 4.17 ± 1.65, and 1.70 ± 0.01 mm, respectively. The histological observations showed that the splenic capsule was composed of two layers (serosal and subserosal). The inner layer sends trabeculae dividing the splenic parenchyma irregularly, and the splenic parenchyma comprises the white and red pulp. The white pulp follicles included the mantle, marginal zones, and the PALS (periarterial lymphatic sheath), while the red pulp constituted splenic cords and sinuses. The histomorphological findings showed that white pulp follicles and the central artery mean diameter were 252.62 ± 8.07 μm and 54.45 ± 0.36 μm respectively, the proportion of white to a red pulp was 0.49 ± 0.01, the splenic capsule, trabecula and the wall of splenic arteries showed an intense positive activity to PAS stain and negative or weak in other splenic structures.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The similarities and differences in the spleen between the laboratory animals and hamsters were apparent in this article, so understanding the morphological and histological structure of the spleen presents significant assistance with species identification to select the appropriate experimental animal model in future medical research</p> Ali Ahmed Hasan, Omar Younis Altaey, Ghada Abdulrahman Sultan Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of patellar position and moment arm between tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and cranial closing wedge ostectomy: An <i>ex vivo</i> study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and cranial closing wedge ostectomy (CCWO) are common treatments for cranial cruciate ligament disease. These two techniques mainly differ in whether the proximal tibial fragment contains the attachment site of the patellar ligament. Currently, no reports compare how these techniques affect the patellofemoral joint.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This ex vivo study aimed to compare the effects of TPLO and CCWO on the patellar position and moment arm in healthy Beagles.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: TPLO and CCWO were performed on each stifle in six cadavers of Beagles. Pre- and postoperative mediolateral radiographs with the stifle angle at approximately 90° were obtained. The modified Blumensaat index (MBI), patellar ligament length to patella length ratio (PLL:PL), and patellar moment arm (PMA) were measured in each radiograph. Mixed-model multiple regression analyses for the MBI, PLL:PL, and PMA, with the surgical procedure as the independent variable, were then performed. The joint angle was included as an independent variable for MBI and PMA.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The PLL:PL was decreased after TPLO. Additionally, the PLL:PL after TPLO was significantly lower than that after CCWO. The MBI decreased with flexion. Postoperative MBI values were reduced for both procedures, with lower values after CCWO than after TPLO. The PMA values decreased with flexion. Postoperative values for both methods were reduced in the PMA, with the values being lower after CCWO than after TPLO.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Both TPLO and CCWO affect the patellofemoral joint. Compared with TPLO, CCWO produced more excellent downward traction on the patella. Therefore, CCWO may be used to correct the patellar alta and treat cranial cruciate ligament disease.</p> Masakazu Shimada, Sawako Murakami, Takahisa Tanigawa, Nobuo Kanno, Yasuji Harada, Yasushi Hara Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of reference genes for expression studies in the liver and spleen of laying hens housed in cage and cage-free systems <p><strong>Background</strong>: The liver and spleen play a pivotal role in metabolism and immune response. During stress, neuroendocrine response induces changes in gene expression, and its assessment demands the validation of the stability of the reference genes to perform relative gene expression experiments.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The objective of this study was to determine the expression stability of four reference genes (<em>GAPDH, ACTB, </em><em>RNA18S</em>, and <em>HMBS</em>) in the liver and spleen tissues from laying hens housed in a conventional cage (CC) and cage-free (CF) egg production systems.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Liver and spleen from Hy-Line Brown hens housed in CC and CF egg production systems were used. mRNA transcript levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the gene expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder algorithms.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The most stable gene from liver tissue was ACTB in CC, CF, and CC-CF groups (overall data). In the spleen, the most stable genes were <em>GAPDH</em> (CC), <em>HMBS</em> (CF), and <em>ACTB</em> (CC-CF).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The <em>ACTB</em> gene was the most stable gene in the liver, and <em>GAPDH</em> and <em>HMBS</em> genes were stable in spleen tissues that could be used for the normalization in qPCR experiments performed in liver and spleen tissues of laying hens housed CC and CF production systems.</p> María P. Herrera-Sánchez, Kelly J. Lozano-Villegas, Iang S. Rondón-Barragán, Roy Rodríguez-Hernández Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective evaluation of a hand-sewn side-to-side intestinal anastomosis technique in dogs and cats <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hand-sewn intestinal resection and anastomosis are commonly performed in veterinary medicine. The outcome of the hand-sewn side-to-side anastomosis (SSA) technique has never been described and compared to other<br>techniques in dogs and cats.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The study aims to describe the side-to-side hand-sewn anastomosis technique in small animals and to compare it with the end-to-end technique.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A retrospective evaluation of the clinical records of dogs and cats that underwent enterectomy between 2000 and 2020 and were treated with side-to-side or end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) was performed.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 52 dogs and 16 cats included in the study, 19 dogs and 6 cats received an SSA, and the remaining received an EEA. No intraoperative complication was reported. However, short-term complication rates were comparable, and mortality rates in the EEA group were higher. At the same time, stenosis was a frequent complication of SSA and was never reported following EEA.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: End-to-end technique remains the gold standard for hand-sewn intestinal anastomosis in small animals. However, SSA can be considered for selected cases with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates.</p> Luca Ciammaichella, Armando Foglia, Sara Del Magno, Veronica Cola, Stefano Zanardi, Debora Tinto, Ombretta Capitani, Monika Joechler, Luciano Pisoni Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of serum kisspeptin levels, ovarian kisspeptin expression, and ovarian BMP15 expression in rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome <p><strong>Background</strong>: Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that has an important role in the female reproductive cycle which is indicated by its role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.<br><strong>Aims</strong>: To analyze the correlation between serum kisspeptin levels, ovarian kisspeptin expression, and ovarian Bone Morphogenic Protein-15 (BMP15) expression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model rats.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The research was accurate experimental research with a post-test design-only control group and was carried out from August to October 2022 at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas Airlangga. 32 Rattus novergicus rats were divided into a control group and a PCOS model group. Blood serum and ovaries were obtained from all groups. In addition, blood serum was examined for kisspeptin levels by ELISA technique, and kisspeptin expression and BMP15 Ovaries were examined immunohistochemically.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Serum kisspeptin levels and ovarian kisspeptin expression of the PCOS model group were not significantly higher than those of the control group (p &gt; 0.05, p &gt; 0.05). The ovarian BMP15 expression of the PCOS model group was not significantly lower (p &gt; 0.05) than that of the control group. Ovarian kisspeptin expression and ovarian BMP15 expression did not significantly correlate with serum kisspeptin levels (p &gt; 0.05). In contrast, there was a significant correlation (p &lt; 0.05) between ovarian kisspeptin expression and ovarian BMP15 expression.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Serum kisspeptin levels and ovarian kisspeptin expression of the PCOS model group were not higher than those of the control group, and the ovarian BMP15 expression of the PCOS model group was not lower than that of the control group. There was no correlation between serum kisspeptin levels with ovarian kisspeptin expression and ovarian BMP15 expression. However, a significant correlation was found between ovarian kisspeptin expression and ovarian BMP15 expression.</p> Achmad Rheza, Budi Santoso, Widjiati Widjiati Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Postoperative efficacy of chondroprotectors and diacerein in dogs with osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament disease <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cranial cruciate ligament disease is one of the leading causes of pelvic limb claudication in canines and osteoarthritis in the stifle joint. Historically, studies have focused on surgical options to improve the stability of the stifle joint, although none of the techniques described in the literature prevents the development of osteoarthritis.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed at proving the presence of osteoarthritis at the time of diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, as well as evaluating the benefits of administering diacerein (DAR) or chondroprotective coadjuvants to the extracapsular fabelo-tibial technique.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Seventeen dogs aged between 2 and 8, weighing more than 25 kg, with no predilection for breed or sex, were operated on using this technique. These were divided into three groups: DAR, Chondroprotector (CP), and Control. The animals were treated for 90 days and controlled clinically, radiologically, and using multidimensional scales for pain and quality of life. The statistical analysis used was descriptive and through non-parametric tests.<br><strong>Results</strong>: All patients had some degree of osteoarthritis at the beginning of the study associated with the presence of pain. The treated groups improved the claudication scores; however, the changes were significant for the DAR group. The pain score improved in all animals, including those in the Control group; however, the differences were significant only in the treated groups. On the other hand, no significant differences were detected in the radiological studies, so it would be convenient to perform this study over more than 90 days.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The surgical treatment accompanied by drugs that act on the degradation of articular cartilage has better clinical results.</p> Florencia Sollier Podestá, Daniela Fabiana Izquierdo Caquías Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cytodifferentiation of Wulzen's cone of mature male sheep hypophysis cerebri with special emphasis on its parenchymal correlations with the adjacent pars distalis, pars intermedia and pars nervosa <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hypophysis cerebri is considered the master endocrine gland as it plays a critical role in influencing and controlling the vitality of other endocrine organs via several hormones secretion.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The present study was performed to clarify the localization of Wulzen's cone (WC) within sheep hypophysis and cytodifferentiation of the glandular cells filling cone parenchyma with particular emphasis on the cone correlations with adjacent pars distalis (pd), pars intermedia (pi), and pars nervosa (pn).<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Pituitaries were collected and processed histologically, then subjected to different combinations of special stains; Br-AB- OFG., PFA-AB-PAS-OG., PAS-Orange G., Orange G- Acid Fuchsin- Light Green, Bielschowsky technique, Masson's trichrome &amp; Gomori's reticulin.<br><strong>Results</strong>: A sagittal section through the pituitaries revealed a well-developed cone of glandular cells protruding from the pi like a tongue plate towards the hypophyseal cleft in the neighborhood of the pd and behind the pn. Resembling the pd, various glandular cells were distinguished in the cone; chromophobes and chromophils of acidophils &amp; basophils. The cone is mainly formed from acidophils intermingled with the chromophobes. Meanwhile, basophils were primarily localized at the most anterior &amp; posterior parts of the cone. In front of the cone, pd were localized, resembling a wing-shaped and filled with several categorized glandular cells; chromophobes and chromophils. Upper to the cone, pi were localized and composed mainly of weakly basophilic cuboidal or polygonal cells arranged in parallel cords or follicles. Behind the cone, pn was localized as a ventral outpouching of the brain floor-like water drop. Unlike the cone, it was devoid of any glandular secretory cells or nerve cells but consisted mainly of unmyelinated nerve fibers, herring bodies, and pituicytes.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: WC is present and well-developed in sheep adenohypophysis. Various glandular cells were distinguished, filling the cone, chromophobes, and chromophils of acidophils &amp; basophils that were typically similar to the glandular cells of pd but with different distributions.</p> Naief Dahran, Wael A. M. Ghonimi Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of site of sample collection on blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucose meter in healthy and diabetic dogs <p><strong>Background</strong>: Blood glucose (BG) monitoring with portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) is a critical aspect of managing canine diabetes mellitus. Some dogs best tolerate sampling from the ear, others from the lip, and others from other body sites. Therefore, it is relevant to know if the choice of the sampling site affects the glucose concentration.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: To compare different sampling sites for BG measurement in diabetic and non-diabetic dogs using veterinary PBGM. Moreover, determining the possible impact of body condition score (BCS) on BG concentration.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty-seven healthy and 12 diabetic dogs were included. A veterinary PBGM was used to measure BG concentrations in a total of 196 blood samples collected from the marginal ear vein (MEV), carpal pad, saphenous vein, and cephalic vein. The results obtained from the different sampling sites were compared.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The carpal pad, MEV, cephalic vein, and saphenous vein BG values were not significantly different at the different blood collection sites. There was no significant difference between higher and lower BCS in BG measurements in the different sampling sites.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Different sampling sites, likewise utilizing either a venous or capillary sample, had no significant effect on BG measurement using veterinary PBGMs. The BCS seems to have no relevant influence on dog BG measurement.</p> Sina Jahan, Samin Jahan, Shahram Jamshidi, Guido Linari, Federico Fracassi, Hesameddin Akbarein Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pathological lesions associated with Vibrio infection in Atlantic horse mackerel (<i>Trachurus trachurus</i> L., 1758) from the western coast of Tripoli, Libya <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Vibrios</em> are aquatic bacteria causing Vibriosis in humans and aquatic animals. Vibriosis is a significant disease of cultured and wild fish.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The present study aimed to address the impact of <em>Vibrios</em> on the health status of <em>Trachurus trachurus</em> inhabiting the coastal area of Tripoli.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 100 samples of (<em>T. trachurus</em>) were collected randomly from the Western Coast of Tripoli and Bab Al-Baher market, throughout the period from spring 2019 to summer 2019. All the sampled fish were examined externally and internally and lesions were recorded. Bacterial isolation from the liver and kidney was carried out using the appropriate culture media. Tissue samples were taken from the liver, kidney, and spleen in 10% neutral buffered formalin for a histopathology examination. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to assess morphologically and Perl's Prussian blue for the demonstration of ferric iron.<br><strong>Results</strong>: On average 69% of the infected fish exhibited at least one pathological lesion. <em>Vibrios</em> were recovered from 90% of the examined fish. The histopathological changes of the liver showed severe congestion of blood vessels (BVs), mononuclear cell infiltration surrounding a bile duct, granular degeneration and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes in the centrilobular area, marked vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, activation of melano-macrophage centers (MMCs), multiple cysts of nematode in hepatic tissue (incidental finding). The histopathological alterations of the kidney showed severe congestion of BVs, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, severe interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration, and marked activation of MMCs in the kidney. Moreover, congestion of BVs and marked activation of melano-macrophages (MMCs) were found in the spleen. The MMCs of most of the sampled tissues showed a strong positive reaction for ferric iron.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The polluted aquatic environment by sewage at Tripoli Coast is an essential factor for triggering the pathogenicity and invasion of <em>Vibrios</em> to vulnerable Atlantic horse mackerel. Also, this study is a preliminary step to give a baseline for further future studies on epidemiology and control of Vibrio infection in Libyan fish.</p> Khawla K. Bukha, Shaima A. M. Mahgiubi, Asma M. Elbahi, Ehab A. Sharif, Mohamed L. Showehdi, Mohamed O. Ahmed, Abdulwahab M. Kammon, Yousef M. Abouzeed Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Computed tomographic evaluation of heart size in clinically healthy cats <p><strong>Background</strong>: Computed tomography (CT) is currently one of the most useful diagnostic imaging tools for evaluating cardiac disorders in humans and animals. However, studies concerning CT and the feline heart remain scarce.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: To create measuring techniques for the feline heart size on CT and to determine the relationships of feline heart size observed on CT with internal parameters including age, bodyweight (BW), and sex.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Four parameters observed on CT including thoracic height/width ratio (THW), relative heart area (RHA), CT vertebral heart score (ctVHS), transverse vertebral heart score (tVHS) in 1.25 mm slice thickness, and both preand post-contrast enhanced images were examined. Additionally, radiographic vertebral heart score (rVHS) was also evaluated.<br><strong>Results</strong>: THW was significantly influenced by age (p &lt; 0.05). RHA was affected by age and gonadal status of cats (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016, respectively). Age also significantly affected tVHS (p = 0.038). Interestingly, ctVHS was not influenced by age, sex, gonadal status, or BW. tVHS and ctVHS had significantly moderately positive correlations with rVHS (r = 0.476; p = 0.048 and r = 0.6112; p = 0.011, respectively). THW and RHA had non-significant correlations with rVHS (r = 0.2642; p = 0.302 and r = 0.1920; p = 0.455, respectively).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: CT heart size evaluation can be performed in both pre- and post-contrast enhanced images of 1.25 mm slice thickness. tVHS and ctVHS are recommended parameters for evaluating feline heart size in clinical practice.&nbsp;</p> Aphisit Wanglerm, Chawanwith Samachikthummakun, Zen Kitnitchee, Thiranan Sirinitikorn, Sapawut Junnong, Somchin Sutthigran, Nan Choisunirachon, Chutimon Thanaboonnipat Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and their concentration in blood plasma, red blood cell, and semen of dogs <p><strong>Background</strong>: In dogs, dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) affect the fatty acid (FA) profile of blood plasma, erythrocyte membrane (EM), and semen, but their correlation has not yet been investigated.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: In this study, we evaluated the association between dietary PUFA and their profile in blood plasma, EM, and semen of dogs, with the possibility to predict the semen profile using the values of the three first.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Twelve male dogs received the same standard commercial diet for 4 weeks. The FA profile was analyzed by gas chromatography in paired diet, blood (plasma and EM determinations), and semen samples. Data were analyzed with SAS Proc Corr version 9.4. Pearson´s correlation coefficient (significant if p &lt; 0.05) was used to assess the association of dietary FA profiles with those in blood plasma, EM, and semen.<br><strong>Results</strong>: There was a positive correlation between dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and blood plasma (r = 0.97), EM (r = 0.94) and semen (r = 0.92) EPA, and between dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) and semen DHA (r = 0.93) and ARA (r = 0.92), respectively. There was a negative correlation between dihomogamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) in the diet and EM DGLA (r = −0.94).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The dietary EPA is correlated with blood plasma, EM, and semen EPA concentrations, and dietary DHA and ARA are associated with semen DHA and ARA concentrations in dogs. These findings suggest that dietary EPA, DHA, and ARA concentrations could be helpful to predictive markers for such concentrations in the semen of dogs.</p> Francisco J. Pellegrino, Yanina Corrada, Sebastián J. Picco, Alejandro E. Relling, Analía Risso Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Genotyping of cows by LHCGR, FSHR loci, and determination of the level of ovulation depending on the expression of the studied genes <p><strong>Background</strong>: Genotyping offers a promising avenue for identifying the healthy reproductive system in cows. The healthy reproductive system in cows is determined by measuring the level of ovulation and by identifying the type polymorphism of specific genes.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of the article is to explore how polymorphism of follicle stimulating hormone Receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) genes affect the reproduction trait of Holstein cows.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Here we define a reproducible protocol to genotype and identify the polymorphism in specific genes from the extracted DNA of cows.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results of genotyping showed that the only C allele (CC genotype) was observed in 100% of cows at the LHCGR locus, and three genotypes were observed at the FSHR locus (CC—67.74%, CG—9.03%, GG—23.22%). In cows with the CC genotype at the FSHR locus, the hormone concentration during ovulation was 1.1–2.5 ng/ml, which is within the physiological range for healthy reproduction.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Cows with the CC genotype at the FSHR locus have a healthy course of the ovulation process, therefore good reproduction.</p> Yktiyar Sarybayev, Yessengali Ussenbekov, Orynbassar Turebekov, Bekbolat Turumbetov, Ibragim Tutkyshbay Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Expression of a recombinant ASFV P30 protein and production of monoclonal antibodies <p><strong>Background</strong>: African Swine Fever (ASF) is an infectious disease that affects domestic pig and wild boar populations. The ASF Virus (ASFV) has a genome characterized by a very complex DNA (170–193 kb) that encodes for more than 200 different proteins. Among these, the highly immunogenic phosphoprotein p30 plays a fundamental role in the induction of specific antibodies. To date, the lack of a vaccine against the disease requires continuous studies to improve knowledge about the virus and the development of new tests in addition to virological ones.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of this work was to produce specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the p30 protein of ASFV, which could find useful applications in routine diagnostics and the implementation of new diagnostic tools.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: ASFV p30 encoding gene was amplified and used for the generation of the recombinant baculovirus by transfection of the Sf21 insect cells. The recombinant protein was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay, purified, and used for mice Balb-c immunization. The hybridomas obtained were cultured and screened, using an indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA), in order to select clones that secrete the mAbs of interest.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The expression of recombinant p30 protein was assessed using direct immunofluorescence. The purified p30 protein fractions were analyzed by Coomassie gels staining confirming the presence of bands with a molecular weight of 30 kDa and used for the immunization of Balb-c mice. Six clones of pure hybridomas secreting the specific mAbs against recombinant p30 were obtained and tested in iELISA. The mAbs were also characterized by Western blot and immunofluorescence assay. The best results were obtained with the anti-p30 mAb 2B8E10 clone which showed high reactivity with both recombinant and viral p30 protein, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In this work, a recombinant p30 protein produced in an insect cell system was purified and used to immunize Balb-c mice. Six anti-p30 mAbs-secreting hybridomas clone cells were obtained. These mAbs displayed high reactivity against the recombinant protein, but only 2B8E10 mAb showed excellent functionality against the p30 protein produced by ASFV. These results open the possibility to develop different diagnostic assays.</p> Rosario Liberti, Claudia Colabella, Lucia Anzalone, Giulio Severi, Antonella Di Paolo, Cristina Casciari, Anna Beatrice Casano, Monica Giammarioli, Monica Cagiola, Francesco Feliziani, Antonio De Giuseppe Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hypertriglyceridemia in equines with refractory hyperinsulinemia treated with SGLT2 inhibitors <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sodium-Glucose CoTransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the -flozin group of drugs, which block glucose reuptake in the renal proximal tubule, are being increasingly used off-label to treat horses with refractory hyperinsulinemia. After 2 years of use by animals in our group, a horse on canagliflozin was incidentally noted to be hyperlipemic.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: We have been following a cohort of equines (n = 20) treated with SGLT2 inhibitors due to refractory hyperinsulinemia. The animals are owned by members of the Equine Cushing’s and Insulin Resistance Group and treated by their attending veterinarians. The index case was a 23 years old gelding with a 2 years history of recurring laminitis that began canagliflozin therapy to control hyperinsulinemia which was no longer responsive to metformin. Between 6 and 10 weeks post start of therapy, significant weight loss was noticed. Two days later he was hospitalized with colic symptoms and hyperlipemia but was bright, alert, and eating well throughout. Canagliflozin was discontinued and triglycerides returned to normal reference values within 10 days. A subsequent study of 19 other horses on SGLT2 inhibitors revealed varying degrees of hypertriglyceridemia, all asymptomatic.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: While this class of drugs holds great promise for cases of refractory hyperinsulinemia and laminitis that do not respond to diet or metformin therapy, hypertriglyceridemia is a potential side effect. In our experience, animals remained asymptomatic and eating well. Further study of hypertriglyceridemia in horses on SGLT2 inhibitors and the possible mitigating effect of diet is indicated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypertriglyceridemia with canagliflozin treatment in equines.</p> Eleanor M. Kellon, Kathleen M. Gustafson Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perforated duodenal ulcer in a dog with gallbladder agenesis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Duodenal ulceration (DU) in dogs derives from different causes but has never previously been related to gallbladder agenesis (GA). GA is a rare congenital disorder in dogs and is considered a predisposing factor for DU in humans.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 5-month-old intact female Maltese was presented for acute vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal ultrasound suggested duodenal perforation and absence of the gallbladder. Exploratory laparotomy was performed to treat the perforation and confirmed GA. Hepatic ductal plate malformation (DPM) was histologically diagnosed in liver biopsy, but no signs of liver dysfunction were detected by blood work at first admission. Two months later, the dog developed signs of portal hypertension and medical treatment was started. However, the clinical condition gradually worsened until liver failure and the dog was euthanized 8 months after surgery. Necropsy confirmed hepatic abnormalities.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This report describes a case of DU associated with GA and DPM in a dog. As in humans, GA may represent a hepatobiliary disease predisposing to gastroduodenal ulcerations.</p> Luca Ciammaichella, Armando Foglia, Sara Del Magno, Veronica Cola, Stefano Zanardi, Francesca Del Baldo, Marco Pietra, Marco Pietra, Maria Morini, Luciano Pisoni Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A rare case report of extensive mandibular osteoma corrected by unilateral mandibulectomy: Cytological, radiological, and pathological investigation <p><strong>Background</strong>: Osteoma is a benign bone tumor that rarely affects animals. The most common bones involved with this tumor included the mandible, maxillofacial bones, and nasal sinuses. Definitive diagnosis is based on pathology findings which allow for differentiation with other bone lesions.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: The patient, a 5-year-old intact male Mongrel dog presented with a huge mandibular mass that involved both the right and left mandible, and led to dental occlusion. The radiography was performed and depicted the intense mass with a well-demarcated edge, a short transitional zone between normal and abnormal bone, and a smooth rounded radiopaque appearance. The investigation according to the fine needle aspiration showed the presence of oval to spindle shape cells with poorly malignancy criteria, fatty cells, reactive osteoblasts, and osteoclasts based on a population of spindle-shaped cells, and low numbers of degenerated neutrophils, bacteria, and few macrophages. Then, the radiographic assessments and cytology findings demonstrated the osteoma and were referred for surgical intervention. A unilateral mandibulectomy was performed, and the lesion was sent to the histopathology laboratory. The histopathology evaluation showed osteocyte proliferation without malignancy features. The osteoblast cells also showed no atypical proliferation that endorses the osteoma tumor.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although mandibular and maxillofacial bone resection in small animals have different tolerations, this patient became a candidate for surgery for future better nutrition and prevention of facial deformity and dental malocclusion. Follow-up after osteoma is one of the most necessary post-operation treatments to check the regeneration of the mass. There are considerable data in this report that should regard this tumor as a possible differential diagnosis for mandibular tumors.</p> Amirhossein Alizadeh Tabarestani, Masoud Nemati-Nezhad, Mohammad Amin Minaie, Sonia Sahvieh, Reza Nikzad Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Eye trauma from a cat scratch with retention of the claw in the anterior chamber in a dog <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cat scratches and ocular foreign bodies are frequent reasons for consultation in veterinary ophthalmology.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: We here present an unusual case combining trauma to the cornea and lens by a cat scratch with retention of the claw in the anterior chamber. Management consisted of the removal of the claw, reconstruction of the cornea, and mechanized ablation of the lens by phacoemulsification with implantation of an artificial lens.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The progression during the follow-up period was considered satisfactory, with positive responses to visual tests and intraocular pressure within the norms. Only dyscoria and a tear of the endothelium and Descemet membrane, secondary to the trauma, remained.</p> Thomas Dulaurent, Laure Steun, Pierre-François Isard Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Histiocytic sarcoma with spinal necrosis in a dog with progressing non-ambulatory tetraparesis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm, and widespread metastasis occurs with a fatal outcome. HS involving the central nervous system is relatively uncommon. Spinal cord necrosis, a very rare condition, could be induced by ischemia or infarction. Here, we report a dog progressing non-ambulatory tetraparesis with spinal cord necrosis caused by HS.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 9-year-old male Labrador Retriever was presented with a progressing non-ambulatory tetraparesis. CT imaging revealed lysis of the spinous process of T7 and a ring-shaped lesion surrounding the soft tissue of lung fields. T2-weighted MRI showed the spinous processes of T6 to T8 as hyperintense, and the lesion infiltrated into the T7 vertebra and the spinal cord. After euthanasia, the final diagnosis upon necropsy was HS, which was observed in the lung, spinous process, thoracic cord, and the pulmonary hilar lymph node. Moreover, necrotic spots were spread widely through the thoracic spinal cord.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This report outlines a case of canine HS in the lung, spinous process, thoracic cord, and pulmonary hilar lymph node. Ischemic deficit and necrosis of the thoracic spinal cord resulted from the compression of perivascular tumor cells, which rapidly led to progressive tetraparesis. Although the diagnosis was difficult, MRI and CT images helped determine the prognosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of canine HS with direct spinal cord involvement associated with spinal necrosis.</p> Yuki Nemoto, Munekazu Nakaichi, Masashi Sakurai, Kazuhito Itamoto, Masahiro Morimoto, Hiro Horikirizono, Harumichi Itoh, Hiroshi Sunahara, Kenji Tani Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000