Open Veterinary Journal <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal. (Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes) (Prof. Salah Azwai) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 13:45:39 +0000 OJS 60 Clinical, anatomopathological, and immunohistochemical findings of a transitional cell carcinoma from nasal cavity, frontal and ethmoidal sinus with meningoencephalic invasion in a dog <p><strong>Background:</strong> Primary neoplasms of the nasal cavity and sinuses are uncommon in domestic animals, most of which are of epithelial origin, being adenocarcinoma the most common tumor diagnosed in this region. Some malignant nasal cavity neoplasms may invade the brain causing clinical neurological signs, as well as purulent nasal secretion and epistaxis.</p> <p><strong>Case Description:</strong> A case of neoplasm is reported in a 14-year-old pincher presenting dyspnea, epistaxis, and neurological alterations. Necropsy revealed the presence of a mass in the oral cavity vestibule, and another in the whole nasal cavity with invasion of the cribiform plate, meninges and brain. Squamous cells carcinoma was diagnosed in the oral cavity and transitional carcinoma in the nasal cavity. The immunohistochemistry confirmed that the brain infiltration was of the same origin as the nasal cavity neoplasm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present report describes a rare case of transitional carcinoma of the nasal cavity as well as the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses with brain invasion, confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is extremely important for veterinarians to include neoplasms in their differential diagnoses, when these animals show chronic respiratory signs and neurological alterations that do not improve with appropriate treatment, always associating with complementary exams, for correct diagnosis establishment and prognosis formulation.</p> Leonardo L. Gorza, Ayisa R. Oliveira, Maryleydy G. Porto, Vania C. Santos, Isabela Hardt, Luciana F. P. Maestri, Tayse D. Souza, Mayra C. Flecher Copyright (c) Fri, 19 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cardiomyopathy in a dog with multicentric lymphoma following treatment with several anthracyclines <p><strong>Background:</strong> Canine lymphoma is one of the most frequently occurring malignant neoplasms in dogs. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy for the treatment of canine lymphoma is very effective; however, there is not enough evidence for the development of cardiac toxicity using several anthracyclines as chemotherapeutic agents.</p> <p><strong>Case Description:</strong> An 8-year-old, castrated, mixed-breed dog was diagnosed with multicentric lymphoma and received multi-agent chemotherapy. Complete remission was achieved, but the patient had a relapse of lymphoma. After third-line chemotherapy with epirubicin, the patient was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy. The total cumulative doses of doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and epirubicin were 125, 8, and 125 mg/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively. Although the patient was treated with cardiac drugs and clinically stabilized, the patient had a relapse of lymphoma and died shortly after the diagnosis of cardiomyopathy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The patient was suspected to have anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. Further studies are required to establish prevention and management strategies for dogs receiving potentially cardiotoxic therapies, such as anthracyclines.</p> Michihito Tagawa, Genya Shimbo, Akiko Uemura, Kotaro Matsumoto Copyright (c) Fri, 19 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The occurrence of osteosarcoma after tibial fracture repair in a dog <p><strong>Background:</strong> There are few detailed reports on implant-associated sarcoma in dogs; however, loose implants, metal type, and infection have not been shown as specific risk factors for this condition.</p> <p><strong>Case Description:</strong> A 14-year-old spayed female Labrador retriever was referred to our hospital with a main complaint of chronic right hind lameness after previous tibial fracture repair. On radiographs, rupture of the bone plate and screws with swelling of the surrounding soft tissue was observed, and osteosarcoma (OSA) was diagnosed after histopathological examinations. During amputation surgery, a plastic band was found associated with the implant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Veterinary surgeons should be aware of implant-associated OSA and refrain from using non-medical materials in the implants. Furthermore, they should recommend the removal of orthopedic implants after fracture repair.</p> Mitsuhiro Isaka, Daiki Kokubo, Toshikazu Sakai Copyright (c) Fri, 19 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Open-heart techniques and mitral valve plasty for mitral regurgitation in toy- and small-breed dogs: A review <p>In human medicine, in the past, open-heart techniques for low-bodyweight children and newborn babies with congenital heart disease were more difficult than high-bodyweight adults. In toy- and small-breed dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR), an acquired heart disease, these techniques are more difficult to perform than for congenital heart diseases in young medium-sized or large dogs because of old age and low body weight. Therefore, improved open-heart techniques and mitral valve surgery for severe MR in older toy- and small-breed dogs are essential. Through our surface-cooling hypothermia (sHT) studies, we designed a new, improved open-heart method, namely, “the low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) combined with deep sHT in toy- and small-breed dogs (Japan method)”; sHT was later replaced by blood-cooling hypothermia (bHT). At the same time, we devised a new, improved mitral valve plasty (MVP) applicable to severe MR, instead of mitral valve replacement, in toy- and small-breed dogs. This MVP technique was combined with artificial chordal reconstruction, semi-circular suture annuloplasty (AP), and direct scallop-suture valvuloplasty. These MVP techniques are simple, durable, and lead to good long-term quality of life in toy- and small-breed dogs. This review highlights the benefits of our improved CPB and MVP techniques (Japan method) for severe MR in toy-and small-breed dogs, which have led to a high success rate for MVP in severe clinical MR cases in Japan. It may further contribute to the development of more robust techniques for MR in toy- and small-breed dogs. This also represents the first comprehensive review of the history of open-heart surgery, CPB techniques, and MVP methods for MR in toy- and small-breed dogs.</p> Isamu Kanemoto, Kippei Mihara, Keiichi Sato Copyright (c) Fri, 19 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution of injectates in the thoracic paravertebral space of the dog and cat: A cadaveric study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) entails injecting a local anesthetic inside the thoracic paravertebral space (TPVS). Loss of resistance to air injection (air-LOR) was the first technique described in humans to locate the TPVS. To date, no study has investigated the spread of any substance after injection into the TPVS using the air-LOR technique nor has described the cranial and caudal limits of the space.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To identify the boundaries of the TPVS, to determine whether the air-LOR technique is reliable for the identification of the TPVS and to examine the relationship between the volume of injectate and its spread.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> After a preliminary phase, the thorax of five cat and five dog cadavers was accessed and eviscerated. After TPVS probing, the polyurethane foam was injected, and the cranial and caudal borders were recorded after its maximum spread. Different volumes of a mixture of new methylene blue and ioversol were injected in the TPVS after its localization with a Tuohy needle and air-LOR technique in fourteen dog and six cat cadavers. Lateral radiographs of the vertebral column were used to document needle positioning, spread pattern and extension. The thorax of these subjects was then accessed and eviscerated to observe and record the spread of the mixture.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Injecting a dye into the TPVS, localized by an air-LOR technique, resulted in multi-segmental and often bilateral subpleural staining of paravertebral, intercostal, and dorsal mediastinal structures in dog and cat cadavers. The lateral radiographs most often showed a mixed cloud-like and linear spread pattern, which could be a predictor of the longitudinal spread of the dye. The foam injected into the TPVS at the cranial and the caudal level revealed anatomical communication with the cervical, axillar, and lumbar paravertebral regions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> TPVS localization by air-LOR technique and injection results in a longitudinal multi-segmental spread in dog and cat cadavers. The communication of the TPVS with the axillary and lumbar regions could be of clinical interest for the brachial plexus and the lumbar intercostal nerve blocks in a clinical setting.</p> Francesco Santoro, Paolo Franci, Annamaria Grandis, Simond Valgimigli Copyright (c) Fri, 19 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The bioavailability of cytarabine in dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology through iontophoresis and rectal delivery <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cytarabine (CA) is used to treat dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (MUE) by subcutaneous or intravenous administration.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The objective was to investigate transdermal iontophoresis and rectal administration as alternative routes of CA delivery.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Two client-owned dogs with MUE were studied. The ActivaPatch® IONTOGOTM 12.0 iontophoresis drug delivery system delivered 200 mg/m<sup>2</sup> CA transdermally. Blood samples were collected by sparse sampling technique after initiation of the device. At another visit, 100 mg/m<sup>2</sup> CA was administered rectally. Blood samples were collected by sparse sampling technique after administration. Plasma CA concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The concentration of plasma CA after transdermal and rectal administration was below the limits of quantification (0.1 μg/ml) in all samples suggesting inadequate bioavailability with transdermal and rectal administration.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Transdermal and rectal CA administration are not reasonable alternative routes of delivery.</p> Shelby L. Mancini, Peter J. Early, Bethany O. Pastina, Natasha J. Olby, Christopher L. Mariani, Karen R. Munana Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Vasoactive intestinal peptide in canine portosystemic shunt in the absence of portal hypertension <p><strong>Background:</strong> The congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS) is a common vascular anomaly in dogs. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is produced in various organs (including the small intestine, large intestine, and pancreas), leading to abdominal vasodilation, increased blood flow, increased pancreatic blood flow, and promotion of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine secretions. However, there have been no reports on the concentration of VIP in the portal and peripheral veins in canine PSS.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether dogs with PSS have a different VIP concentration in their portal system in general.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Six dogs with an extrahepatic portosplenic shunt were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from the saphenous and portal veins during PSS ligation surgery with an amerid constrictor, to evaluate and compare the VIP concentration in both samples. VIP was measured using a commercial canine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The breeds included Mongrels (<em>n </em>= 2), Norfolk Terriers (<em>n </em>= 1), Miniature Dachshunds (<em>n </em>= 1), and Maltese (<em>n</em> = 2), and their ages were 9.3 ± 6.5 months; the bodyweight was 3.3 ± 0.8 kg. The concentration of VIP in the saphenous vein was 17.75 ± 13.88 pg/ml; on the contrary, the concentration of VIP in the portal vein was 29.7 ± 20.29 pg/ml. There was no significant difference in the VIP concentration between veins.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was no difference in the VIP concentration between the portal and saphenous veins, suggesting a non-association between VIP and the PSS, in the absence of portal hypertension.</p> Mitsuhiro Isaka, Hiroshi Ueno Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular characterization of duck plague virus from selected Haor areas of Bangladesh <p><strong>Background:</strong> Duck viral enteritis, commonly known as duck plague (DP), is an acute and contagious fatal disease in ducks, geese, and swans caused by the DP virus (DPV). It poses a serious threat to the growth of duck farming in the Haor (wetland) areas of Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to detect the circulating DPV by molecular characterization, followed by phylogenetic analysis, targeting the <em>UL30</em> gene in infected ducks from five Haor districts in Bangladesh and to observe the variation in the genome sequence between the field virus and vaccine strain of DPV.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 150 samples (liver, 50; intestine, 50; and oropharyngeal tissue, 50) were collected from DP-suspected sick/dead ducks from 50 affected farms in Kishoreganj, Netrokona, B. Baria, Habiganj, and Sunamganj districts in Bangladesh. For the identification of DPV in collected samples, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized. Nucleotide sequences of the amplified <em>UL30</em> gene were compared with those of other DPV strains available in GenBank.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 150 samples, 90 (60%) were found to be positive for DPV, as confirmed by PCR. Organ-wise prevalence was higher in the liver (72%), followed by the intestine (64%) and oropharyngeal tissue (44%). Regarding areas, the highest and lowest prevalence in the liver and intestine was observed in Habiganj and B. Baria, respectively, whereas the highest and lowest prevalence in the oropharyngeal tissue was observed in B. Baria and Habiganj, respectively. Two isolates, BAU/KA/DPV(B1)/2014 from Kishoreganj and BAU/KA/DPV(B4)/2014 from Sunamganj were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these isolates are evolutionarily closely related to Chinese isolates of DPV. Additionally, the isolates of DPV BAU/KA/DPV(B1)/2014 and BAU/KA/DPV(B4)/2014 showed the highest (98%) similarity to each other. The nucleotide sequence of the isolate BAU/KA/DPV(B1)/2014 exhibited higher nucleotide variability (246 nucleotides) than that of the vaccine strain (accession no. EU082088), which may affect protein function and additional drug sensitivity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the findings of the molecular study, it can be assumed that the Bangladeshi isolates and all Chinese isolates of DPV may have a common ancestry.</p> Kamrul Ahmed Khan, Md. Alimul Islam, Abdullah Al Momen Sabuj, Md. Abul Bashar, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Golzar Hossain, Muhammed Tofazzal Hossain, Sukumar Saha Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Electroacupuncture anesthesia for laparotomy in goats <p><strong>Background:</strong> The objective of the study to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture during laparotomy in goats.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To study the abdominal anesthesia in goats by electroacupuncture using the physiological variables, vital parameters, hematological, biochemical, cortisol hormone, pain threshold, and wound healing for laparotomy in goats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifteen healthy adult bucks were used to receive electroacupuncture in 10 newly selected acupoints. The data (M ± SD) were assessed at intervals (0 minutes) before induction (control group), (5 minutes), (10 minutes), (15 minutes), and (20 minutes) during induction, (30 minutes), (45 minutes), and (60 minutes) throughout surgery and (24 hours) after surgery, cortisol levels in serum at (0), (24 hours), and (72 hours) throughout laparotomy.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The goats of the study showed improvement in the rates of eyelid closure, head, and neck relaxation, rumen motility, and tympany which were graded into mild (+), moderate (++), and severe (+++) degrees. The respiratory rates, body temperatures, and capillary fill times were not significantly different. The total mean of hematocrit was (19.9 ± 2.68), the total mean of hemoglobin was (9.9 ± 0.94), the total mean of red blood cells was (7.9 ± 0.8), the total mean of platelets was (244,861.3 ± 138,444.8) and the total mean of SPO2 was (70.5 ± 4.6). ALT and AST showed no significance. The significant mean cortisol level was (2.6 ± 2.01) and the significant mean pain threshold level was (0.02 ± 0.03). The results proved that electroacupuncture had a lot of significant parameters. The wound healing was improved by early epithelization and immature granulation tissue (at 7 days). Thick keratinized epithelization and collagen deposition in the dermal tissue with enhanced angiogenesis (at 14 days). Mild restoration of skin and the dermal tissue was well-organized (at 21 days). Besides, well-formed scar tissue covering a highly cellular organized dermal tissue (at 28 days).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Electroacupuncture had been considered a powerful anesthetic for abdominal surgery in goats. Moreover, wound healing proved excellent and better healing.</p> Khalifa Ashour, Naglaa Abd Elkader Awad, Sherein S. Abdelgayed, Amal Zakaria Ahmed Leil, Eldessouky Sheta Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green <i>Coffea robusta</i> (<i>Coffea canephora</i>) from Lampung province effect toward free radicals in chickens infected with <i>Salmonella enteritidis</i> bacteria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Foodborne diseases are caused by acquired pathogenic bacteria such as <em>Salmonella</em> <em>enteritidis</em>. It causes an intestinal imbalance and the microbial toxins found in the gastrointestinal tract induce symptoms such as diarrhea. Coffee contains active ingredients such as antioxidants and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the body.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction between Lampung’s robusta coffee and tissue damage in chickens infected by <em>S. enteritidis.</em></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study used first-day-old Isa brown layer chickens (<em>n</em> = 60), which were divided into five treatment groups. The negative control group consisted of healthy and normal chickens, whereas the positive control group consisted of chickens infected with <em>S. enteritidis</em> bacteria at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml. Groups T1, T2, and T3 were given coffee extract with doses of 500 mg/kg BW (low dose), 1,000 mg/kg BW (moderate dose), and 1,500 mg/kg BW (high dose), respectively, and then infected with <em>S. enteritidis</em> bacteria at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml. The coffee extract and bacteria were given orally via a feeding tube at a volume of 0.5 ml per chick. The extract was given for 14 days (from day 3 to day 16), and the bacteria were given on days 16 and 17. On day 18, the chickens were necropsied. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance test with the GLM procedure (&lt;0.05), while the tissue histopath was analyzed using a descriptive qualitative study to examine the ileal damage</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the MDA levels (nmol/l) decreased in treatment groups T1, T2, and T3 compared to the positive control. On the contrary, we found improvements in the ileum histopathology of group T1 and T2 in the form of normal and regular intestinal epithelium arrangement of the ileum, long intestinal villi, and decreased total leukocytes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Green coffee robusta has the potential to increase antioxidants and reduce inflammation in the small intestine of chickens infected with <em>S. enteritidis</em>.</p> Dahliatul Qosimah, Djalal Rosyidi, Lilik E. Radiati, Indah A. Amri, Dodik Prasetyo, Fajar S. Permata, Agri K. Anisa Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Low semen quality and adverse histological changes in testes of adult male mice treated with bee venom (<i>Apis mellifera</i>) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Male infertility has been on the rise since the past seven decades. Recently, in Libya, bee venom therapy (BVT) has become a popular method among alternative healthcare practitioners for treating male infertility. However, a literature search did not find any published studies that investigated the use of BVT for infertility treatment.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the effect of bee venom on the male reproductive status through measurements of semen quality parameters and testicular histological changes in adult male mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 48 male mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups (which were subdivided into two subgroups with eight mice each) as follows: control, bee venom sting (BVS), and bee venom injection (BVI). The normal control subgroup mice were not subjected to any treatment, while the vehicle control subgroup mice were injected (i.p.) with 200 μl of 0.9% saline solution. In the BVS-treated subgroups, each mouse was stung by one live bee for five times (BVS-5) or seven times (BVS-7) every third day for 2 or 3 weeks. While each mouse in the BVI-treated subgroups received 23 μg/kg in a dose volume of 200 μl BVIs (i.p.) for five times (BVI-5) or seven times (BVI-7) every third day for 15 or 21 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of this study showed that repeated bee venom treatment by sting or injection to adult male mice resulted in a significant decline in testosterone levels, sperm count, sperm motility, and a very significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology; also, there were harmful testicular histological changes in the structural organization of seminiferous tubules and degenerative changes in the germinal epithelium compared to control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study provide evidence for the low semen quality and adverse testicular histological changes in male mice treated with bee venom. Hence, there is a desperate need for educating alternative healthcare practitioners and infertile couples about the harmful effects of BVT on reproductive status.</p> Sassia O. Regeai, Salma A. Abusrer, Naema S. Shibani Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Flea and tick treatment satisfaction, preference, and adherence of US cat owners prescribed topical fluralaner (Bravecto® Topical Solution for Cats) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Fluralaner is a novel isoxazoline compound and the only systemically distributed ectoparasiticide approved in the United States for redosing at up to 12-week intervals for flea and tick control in cats. Other feline ectoparasiticides, including other systemic isoxazolines, are approved for redosing at monthly intervals. A survey developed in 2016 to assess the satisfaction, preference, and adherence of dog owners prescribed fluralaner as an ectoparasiticide with the treatment and veterinary flea and tick protection recommendations was adapted for completion<br>by cat owners in the USA.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study objective was to use cat-owner survey data obtained at US veterinary practices to assess client satisfaction and utilization practices for fluralaner, and to evaluate owner adherence to current flea and tick control recommendations.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> US veterinary practices (<em>n</em> = 26) were asked to obtain completed surveys for up to 25 active clients who were currently treating their cats with a topical preparation of fluralaner for flea and tick control. Clients who had previously used flea and tick products for cats other than fluralaner were enrolled in the study. Participating cat owners completed an 11-question survey on their satisfaction with, preference for, and adherence to treatment recommendations for topically applied fluralaner as a feline flea and tick control medication.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average cat in this study had a mean (± SD) body weight of 5.1 (± 0.9) kg and was 7.1 (±1.4) years old. Most cats lived in a home versus an apartment and more than half spent some time outside. Satisfaction was assessed with a 5-point Likert scale, with nearly all cat owners (97%) indicating that they were satisfied or very satisfied with fluralaner. Most of them (66%) had previously used other monthly flea and tick products for cats. Owners were not excluded if they had previously used a canine flea and tick product. The extended dosing interval up to 12 weeks was the most frequently selected benefit of fluralaner. Nearly 9 out of 10 respondents indicated they readministered fluralaner mostly on time or delayed by a few days, and most said they were more likely to give a repeat dose of fluralaner at the recommended redosing interval compared to monthly products. 87% of the responding cat owners preferred topical fluralaner over the monthly flea and tick products they had used.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The extended dosing interval of up to 12 weeks was the leading preference factor and the key driver of user satisfaction with fluralaner leading to improved adherence to redosing recommendations. Cat owners said they were more likely to administer fluralaner at the recommended redosing interval compared to monthly products, indicating that less frequent redosing contributes to improved adherence.</p> Robert Lavan, Dorothy Normile, Rob Armstrong, Wendy Vaala Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Use of a circular fixator construct to facilitate closed reduction and percutaneous stabilization of a distal femoral physeal fracture in a dog <p><strong>Background:</strong> Fractures of the distal femoral physis are the most common physeal fracture sustained by skeletally immature dogs. Reduction and stabilization of these fractures can sometimes be achieved through closed reduction, primarily in fractures that are nominally displaced. Circular external fixator constructs have been used to assist in indirect, closed reduction of fractures at other anatomic locations in dogs and this report describes application of this method to reduce a displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal femur in a 1-year-old dog.</p> <p><strong>Case Description:</strong> A 1-year-old female spayed Akita was referred for treatment of a Salter-Harris type II fracture of the right distal femur. The epiphyseal segment was laterally and slightly caudally displaced. Multiple attempts to manually reduce the fracture during surgery were unsuccessful, so a two-ring circular external fixator construct was applied to facilitate distraction and reduction. The construct was applied by placing a medial-to-lateral Kirschner wire in both the mid-femoral diaphysis and in the distal femoral epiphysis. Distraction of the construct provided sufficient separation of the fracture segments to facilitate near anatomic reduction. The fracture was stabilized with two percutaneously placed Steinmann pins placed in Rush fashion. Radiographic union was confirmed 5 weeks after surgery. The dog was not lame and was bearing more weight on the right pelvic limb, as assessed using force plate analysis, 9 months following surgery. Goniometric measurements of stifle range of motion and thigh muscle circumference were similar between the pelvic limbs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Application of a two-ring circular construct would appear to be useful to facilitate closed reduction and percutaneous stabilization of distal femoral physeal fractures.</p> Matthew A. Lazarus, Daniel D. Lewis, Matthew D. Johnson, Erin G. Porter Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Rabies in bovine: First case report of rabies in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Libya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Rabies is still one of the most neglected diseases in developing countries. It is endemic to North Africa, although rabies incidence in North Africa is certainly underestimated.</p> <p><strong>Case Description:</strong> On 18 December 2018 in the region of Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, an 8-month-old calf died after a period of characteristic clinical symptoms of rabies. This is the first case of rabies in bovine which is confirmed through histopathological examination in the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Omar Al-Mukhtar University. Microscopic examination clearly revealed encephalitis with the pathognomonic Negri bodies in the cerebellar neurons.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Since the characteristic lesions in the histopathological examination are sufficient to confirm the diagnosis and report infected cases, we recommend that the next version of the OIE Terrestrial Manual should add and clarify that the results of the use of histopathological techniques in the diagnosis of rabies are significant.</p> Monier Sharif, Aiman Arhaiem, Osama Giadan, Abdulkarim Adam, Fawzia Abdalla, Abdunaser Dayhum, Mohammed Bengoumi Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of electrochemotherapy in the management of apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas in dogs: A retrospective study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Electrochemotherapy (ECT) combines the administration of anticancer drugs with the delivery of electric pulses, thus increasing the drug uptake through the cell membranes, resulting in increased efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of our study was to describe the tolerability and efficacy of ECT alone or in association with other treatment modalities for the management of apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASAC).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Medical records of dogs with a diagnosis of AGASAC that were treated with ECT alone or in combination with surgery/chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Each dog received 20 mg/m<sup>2 </sup>of bleomycin intravenously. Based on the clinician’s decision, the primary tumor or tumor bed was also infiltrated with cisplatin at the dose of 0.5 mg/cm<sup>2</sup>. Trains of permeabilizing biphasic electric pulses were then applied under general anesthesia.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Ten dogs were enrolled in the study. Of those 10 dogs, only one received ECT for treatment of microscopic local disease, while in six cases ECT was the only treatment modality. In three dogs, ECT was followed by systemic medical treatment. Six dogs (60%) had a partial response (PR), three dogs (30%) had stable disease, and one dog treated for microscopic disease did not show any sign of local relapse for 305 days after treatment, being still alive and in complete remission at the time of writing this article. The median time to progression was 303 days and the median survival time was 365 days. The treatment was well tolerated and local side effects were minimal. No systemic effects were documented.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This preliminary study suggests that ECT may be beneficial for dogs with AGASAC and could be a useful addition to the current therapeutic options in consideration of its low cost, limited toxicity, and ease of administration.</p> Paola Valenti, Francesco Menicagli, Alfonso Baldi, Gabriele Barella, Chiara Catalucci, Valeria Attorri, Enrico P. Spugnini Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Little brainiacs and big dummies: Are we selecting for stupid, stout, or small dogs? <p><strong>Background:</strong> Brain size has been associated with intelligence of various orders and families of animals, leading to the concept of encephalization. Brain size scales with body weight between species within mammals to approximately the 0.67 power. However, within species, this scaling exponent appears to be much smaller (approximately 0.27 power).</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> We examined whether this relationship has persisted in dogs over the 120 years since this was originally observed.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Comparative cross-sectional study of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data obtained from 127 dogs, compared to historical data from 157 dogs and 24 non-dog canid species.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Brain size in dogs measured by MRI had a scaling exponent virtually identical to that observed previously (0.24 vs. 0.26). However, the proportionality constant was smaller, suggesting that dogs in the study cohort had relatively smaller brains than the historical cohort. Absolute brain size appeared to have both a lower and upper limit in dogs. When compared to non-dogs canids, the most appropriate “representative” size for a “typical dog” when examining allometric scaling across Canidae appeared to be approximately 10–15 kg.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> We interpreted the slight reduction in relative brain size to be a function of increased obesity in the study cohort compared to dogs examined 120 years ago. Further, we suggest that dog brains have a finite lower size limit. Finally, concepts of encephalization should not be applied to dogs.</p> Mark Rishniw, Curtis W. Dewey Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Histological study of gonadal tissues of adult <i>Artemia salina</i> (Linnaeus 1758) and immunohistochemistry by Caspase 3 and HSP70 to detect specific apoptosis markers on gonadal tissues after exposure to TBTCl <p><strong>Background:</strong> Several types of research have been recently carried out on the biological effects of TBTs, including investigations of genitals in invertebrates in response to exposure to TBTs in marine water.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The objective of this research was to investigate the acute effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) on gonads in the adult stage of <em>Artemia salina</em> by use normal histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) (Caspase 3 and HSP70) to see specific apoptosis markers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> After exposure of <em>A. salina</em> to different concentrations of TBTCl (25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 ng.l−1), 50 adult <em>A. salina</em> (25 male and 25 female) were selected randomly from each concentration to histologically study the gonads. The gonad tissue was sectioned (5 μm) and some slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and others were stained with IHC avidin–biotin complex, and were examined under a light microscope.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) in histological lesions between different concentrations of TBTCl. The histological lesions in the testis and ovary section were undifferentiated cells, degenerating yolk globules, and follicle cells enveloping the oocyte which was then compared with control tissue, and these effects were found to be increased in females more than in males with the highest concentration of TBTCl. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that positive immunostaining was observed in the testis and ovary as brownish deposits to Caspase 3 and HSP70 antibody after exposure to TBTCl, while the testis and ovary section in control tissue had no immunoreactivity to Caspase 3 and HSP70 antibody; these effects were profoundly increased with the highest concentration of TBTCl in females more than in males. Finally, the histological lesions and IHC (Caspase 3 and HSP70) revealed that the apoptosis and immune system stress of <em>A. salina</em> gonad tissue damage in females were more sensitive to TBTCl toxicity as compared to white males.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In general, the present study aimed to observe the effects TBTCl on <em>A. salina</em> gonads by using histological sections and IHC (Caspase 3 and HSP70), which were evaluated for the first time and have been proven to possess an important function in apoptosis marker and immune system stress in <em>Artemia</em>. Finally, the specific mechanisms through which TBTCl affects <em>A. salina</em> Caspase 3 and HSP70 expression need further investigation.</p> Najla Mohamed Abushaala, Abdulfattah Mohamed Elfituri, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A-scan biometry, phacoemulsification, and foldable intraocular lens implantation in a young orangutan (<i>Pongo pygmaeus</i>) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cataracts are the major cause of visual impairment in animals which can be curable by surgical treatment. Phacoemulsification is the standard technique for cataract treatment that is applied to almost all species with a high success rate.</p> <p><strong>Case Description:</strong> A 2-year-old intact female orangutan (<em>Pongo pygmaeus</em>) was presented for the study having bilateral opacity of the lenses, for 2 weeks. Ophthalmic examination revealed mature cataract OU. Ocular biometry measurements using A-scan ultrasonography for appropriate intraocular lens (IOL) refractive power calculation were carried out. Electroretinography was applied to ensure retinal function is intact. The orangutan underwent phacoemulsification OU and +24 diopter IOL implantation OS to restore vision. IOL implantation was not carried out OD because of a posterior capsular tear. Retinoscopy after 3 weeks postoperatively revealed +2.0 diopters OS. The outcome of the cataract surgery was successful during 3 years follow-up. The orangutan lived with other orangutans and was alert with normal behavior such as catching food, climbing trees, and swinging hand over hand from one branch to another.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cataract surgery with phacoemulsification OU and adjusted IOL implantation OD was successful with few complications in this orangutan. Vision was restored with normal behavior, even though an adjusted IOL was inserted in only one eye.</p> Natthanet Sritrakoon, Winyu Karntip, Sirirat Niyom, Susadee Khemton, Panuwat Pakpiboon, Kant Wongsirodkul, Kanyarat Arunsri, Aree Thayananuphat Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The treatment of articular cartilage injuries with mesenchymal stem cells in different animal species <p>One of the major problems observed in veterinary practice is articular cartilage injuries in animals. In terms of agriculture, it leads to their culling from the herd, even if they are highly productive animals. With companion animals, owners usually have to decide between euthanasia or long-term sometimes lifelong treatment of the injury by a veterinarian. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of cartilage injury in veterinary medicine is based on the good results observed in preclinical studies, where large animals have been used as experimental models to study the regenerative activity of MSCs. According to the literature, MSCs in veterinary medicine have been used to treat cartilage injury of dogs and horses, whereas sheep and goats are generally models for reproducing the disease in preclinical experimental studies.</p> Ilnur Ganiev, Natalia Alexandrova, Alexander Aimaletdinov, Catrin Rutland, Albina Malanyeva, Albert Rizvanov, Elena Zakirova Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Epizootic situation of Aujeszky’s disease within the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan <p><strong>Background:</strong> The relevance of the study is determined by the danger that this disease poses to all types of domestic animals in the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as the significant damage caused by this situation to the entire agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Timely and competent analysis of the epizootic situation for this disease in the country will reliably determine the development tendencies of this condition and predetermine a set of measures that should be taken to combat this animal disease in agricultural regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study examines the development of the epizootic situation of Aujeszky’s disease within the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> To achieve the set research goal, a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods are used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this research article can be of significant importance for livestock breeders in the Republic of Kazakhstan, who are working on raising the number of pigs and other types of domestic animals and are interested in a further increase in the number.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From a practical standpoint, the significance of this study is conditioned by the possibility of searching and determining the main directions of the spread of the disease under consideration in agricultural lands and regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as taking a set of measures to eradicate such a disease and prevent its future occurrence in the country.</p> Zhumagali K. Koshemetov, Zhanat B. Kondibayeva, Assilbek M. Mussoyev, Abdikalyk A. Abishov, Urzhan Zh. Omarbekova Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors associated with survival in dogs with a histopathological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: 94 cases (2007–2018) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer in dogs. Despite this, relatively few reports of this disease exist pertaining to prognostic factors and outcome.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate factors associated with survival in dogs with all subtypes of HCC diagnosed on histopathology.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A retrospective single institutional study was carried out on 94 client-owned dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of HCC between 2007 and 2018 obtained by biopsy (21/94) or attempted definitive resection (73/94). Signalment, preoperative features, surgical findings, and postoperative outcomes were recorded. Associations between survival to discharge data were collected and univariable logistical regression was carried out. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was carried out to identify negative risk factors for long-term prognosis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The median survival time (MST) for all patients was 707 days (95% CI = 551–842). MST was not significantly different (p &gt; 0.05) between patients who had suspected versus incidentally diagnosed HCC (695 vs. 775 days), between complete versus incomplete surgical margins (668 vs. 834 days), or between patients with massive subtype versus nodular/diffuse subtype (707 vs. 747 days). Logistical regression identified an association with the excision of the right medial lobe and risk of perioperative death (OR = 9.2, CI 1.5–55.9, p = 0.016). An American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥4, disease present within the quadrate lobe, and elevated blood urea nitrogen, potassium or gamma-glutamyltransferase were identified as negative prognosticators during multivariable Cox regression. Preoperative imaging (ultrasound or CT) agreed with the surgical location in 91% of the cases. Preoperative cytology was consistent with a diagnosis of HCC in 15/32 (46.9%) cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Type of diagnosis (incidental vs presumed), completeness of excision, and subtype were not associated with MST in this study. Preoperative identification of tumors within the central division may be related to a less favorable outcome. Results of preoperative cytology were not highly sensitive for identifying a malignancy.</p> James Moyer, Daniel J. Lopez, Cheryl E. Balkman, Julia P. Sumner Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Therapeutic equivalence of ivermectin 1% and two novel formulations combined of ivermectin 1% + fluazuron 12.5% for the control of <i>Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus</i> in beef cattle from Uruguay <p><strong>Background:</strong> Novel combinations of ivermectin (IVM) and fluazuron (FLU) are presented as an alternative for the control of ticks in cattle. Applying a combination of drugs with the aim to affect different stages of the parasite’s life cycle is established as a potential measure to achieve the control of ticks in cattle.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the therapeutic equivalence between two novel formulations of IVM 1% combined with FLU 12.5% tested on bovines naturally infested with <em>Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Forty adult beef cattle were randomized into four groups (n = 10): IVM [1% (0.2 mg/kg)], combinations groups A and B [IVM 1% (0.2 mg/kg) + FLU 12.5% (2.5 mg/kg), each], and control [untreated]). On days 14, 27, and 49 after administration, the presence of ticks was ranked as null, low, medium, and high; a cumulative link model was adjusted to evaluate treatment response.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Although all groups had some animals with the presence of ticks until day 27, on day 14 IVM [odds ratios (OR) 0.013, CI95%: 0.001–0.014, p &lt; 0.01], A (OR 0.01, CI95%: 0.00–0.07, p &lt; 0.01) and B (OR 0.01, CI95%: 0.00–0.148, p &lt; 0.01) groups were different when compared to the control group, unlike on day 27 where only groups A (OR 0.02, CI95%: 0.00–0.17, p &lt; 0.01) and B (OR 0.06, CI95%: 0.00–0.46, p &lt; 0.01) remained different from the control group. On day 49 post-administration, IVM and B did not differ from the control group, with 0.95 probability (CI95% 0.92–1.02) of high parasite burden. At day 49 post-administration, group A was the only group free of ticks (OR 0.01, CI95%: 0.00–0.13, p &lt; 0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Pharmacotechnical differences in combined formulations should be considered in therapeutic equivalence studies.</p> Diego Robaina, Silvana Alvariza, Gonzalo Suárez Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological findings in healthy Amiata donkeys <p><strong>Background:</strong> The approach to respiratory diseases in donkeys is similar to that for horses; nevertheless, Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and tracheal wash cytology in this species have been described only a few times in the literature.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To describe BALF cytological findings in a cohort of 24 healthy Amiata donkeys.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was carried out via standing sedation with a large animal where the BAL catheter passed blindly through the nasal passage into the trachea.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The total nucleated cell count of the BALF was found similar to that already described in healthy horses and donkeys. No differences in the differential count were observed according to age and sex. A decreased macrophage percentage and an increased eosinophil percentage were observed in our donkey population when compared to the existing reference range for horses.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The reference intervals for BAL cytology in donkeys may be significantly different for those referred for horses.</p> Valentina Vitale, Francesca Bonelli, Angela Briganti, Micaela Sgorbini Copyright (c) Sun, 21 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000