Open Veterinary Journal <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal. (Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes) (Prof. Salah Azwai) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 03:23:55 +0000 OJS 60 Histomorphometry and μCT scan analysis of osteoporosis in spayed female dogs <p><strong>Background</strong>: Both humans and small animals suffer from similar metabolic and structural diseases that impact the musculoskeletal system; however, instead of studying animal disease in its own right, animals are more often used as models for research into various human ailments, such as osteoporosis. There are few studies indicating that animals may suffer from osteoporosis, which raises the question of why small animals, which we believe to be equally susceptible, receive so little attention. With this research, we hope to draw the attention of researchers to the fact that the examination of animals for this disease is just as important as the examination of humans; human osteoporosis research receives a great deal of attention, while animals and their health are neglected.<br><strong>Aims</strong>: We aimed to analyze the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and thickness of first (L1) and second (L2) lumbar vertebrae samples from five cadavers using histomorphometric analysis. In addition, we aimed to investigate one cadaver using microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The L1 and L2 vertebrae from five dog carcasses were used to evaluate the BV/TV and the trabecular thicknesses. We used precise sampling criteria, and also developed a methodological approach to the study of the vertebrae. Using semi-automated methods, we performed histomorphometric analysis and μCT data analysis.<br><strong>Results</strong>: We used five dog cadavers in this research. During the histomorphometry study, we observed that the lowest L1 BV/TV ratio was 7.88% and the highest was 23.08%. The L2 vertebrae BV/TV ranged from 11.58% to 23.7%. The L1 and L2 lumbar trabeculae thicknesses were also measured. L1’s smallest trabecula was 17.34 microns and its largest was 31.88. The L2 vertebrae trabecula thickness was 18.76–30.75 microns. BV/TV and trabecular thickness were positively correlated (and vice versa). The two-tailed p value was less than 0.00001. This difference is statistically significant. After μCT analysis, we discovered regions in the vertebral body with low porosity; these cavities are usually filled with connective tissue. The bone tissue in these areas is more vulnerable, meaning fracture risk has increased.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Animals should not just be considered as models for osteoporosis in humans, but also as potential patients. A single test, such as histomorphometry, may not be sufficient; more advanced technology, such as μCT, is required, since it reveals the pores that make the vertebral column more brittle and susceptible to fracture.</p> Ernest Kostenko, Alius Pockevičius, Algirdas Maknickas Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 <i>Curcuma longa</i> supplementation reduces MDA, TNF-<i>α</i>, and IL-6 levels in a rat model exposed to soot particulates <p><strong>Background</strong>: Particulate matter (PM) is one of the important components in air pollution that can cause endothelial vascular dysfunction through exacerbation of atherosclerosis and inflammation of the respiratory system. Increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood plasma can be an indicator of oxidative stress. Then, macrophages can secrete proinflammatory cytokines that will stimulate immune cells and vascular endothelial cells to release inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrotic factor-<em>α</em> (TNF-<em>α</em>).<em> Curcuma longa</em> works by scavenging the active free radicals involved in the peroxidation process.<br><strong>Aims</strong>: This study aims to prove that the administration of C. longa can reduce MDA, TNF-<em>α</em>, and IL-6 levels in <em>Rattus norvegicus</em> exposed to soot particulates.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The subjects of this study were 30 male rats which were divided into 5 treatment groups with the following: (C0): negative control; (C+): positive control; (T1): Treatment group 2, rats exposed to particulate soot at a concentration of 1,064 mg/m<sup>3</sup> for 8 hours and given<em> C. longa</em> at a dose of 1 mg/kg bw; (T2): Treatment group 3 was rats exposed to soot particulates at a concentration of 1,064 mg/m<sup>3</sup> for 8 hours and given <em>C. longa</em> at a dose of 2 mg/kg bw; (T3): Treatment group 4 was rats exposed to soot particulates at a concentration of 1,064 mg/m<sup>3</sup> for 8 hours and given <em>C. longa</em> at a dose of 3 mg/kg bw. Giving the <em>C. longa</em> extract orally with a probe every day for 30 days after treatment of exposure to soot. Examination of MDA, TNF-, and IL-6 levels with the ELISA method.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The administration of <em>C. longa</em> can reduce MDA while the lowest MDA levels were obtained in the T3 treatment with an average of 1.542 ± 0.231. The results of the description of the lowest levels of TNF-<em>α</em> were obtained in the C-treatment with an average of 55.981 ± 4.689. Then, the lowest levels of IL-6 were obtained in the C-treatment with an average of 2.292 ± 0.461.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results stated that the administration of C. longa could reduce MDA levels, TNF-<em>α</em>, and IL-6 levels. <em>Curcuma longa</em> as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant play an effective role in inhibiting inflammation by decreasing IL-6 cytokine and TNF-<em>α</em>. <em>Curcuma longa</em> can inhibit lipid peroxidation initiated by free radicals and then reduce MDA levels.</p> Muhammad Aminuddin, Djanggan Sargowo, Teguh Wahju Sardjono, Widjiati Widjiati Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mites associated with budgerigars <i>Melopsittacus undulatus</i> (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) and the first report of <i>Ornithonyssus bursa</i> (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) in Mexico <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hematophagous mites affect numerous bird species, causing severe injuries to the budgerigars. Some species can cause dermatitis in humans.<br><strong>Aims</strong>: The purpose was to morphologically identify the mites related to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and their nests in Yucatan, Mexico.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: In May 2022, a private budgerigar hatchery was visited and mites were collected from the bodies of the birds and their nests. The morphological traits of the mites were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Four of 30 birds showed severe clinical signs of mite infestation. The Budgerigars revealed lesions in the cere, nostrils, eyelids, beak, and paws. The bird’s skin showed signs of dryness and beige coloring. The birds with severe damage also presented anorexia and had deformed paws and beaks. The parasitosis was caused by the “burrowing mites,” Knemidocoptes pilae. The burrowing mites and the Grallacheles bakeri were recovered and identified from paw scabs. To eliminate mites, a topical application of Ivermectin was administered to the necks of the birds. The dose was a single, which has a residuality of 21 days. Two drops (0.115 mg/ml) of ivermectin were applied to each bird. A gradual reduction in crusted lesions due to mite mortality was noted. The “tropical fowl mite” Ornithonyssus bursa was identified in the nests, which represents the first record in Mexico.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Three species of mites were discovered in a single budgerigar hatchery. This emphasizes the importance of deworming birds and keeping a clean environment in their cages to reduce the potential for parasitic mite infestation.</p> Julian E. Garcia-Rejon, Ingrid Y. Cab-Cauich, Julio C. Tzuc-Dzul, Nohemi Cigarroa-Toledo, Wilbert A. Chi-Chim, Jose I. Chan-Perez, Karla Y. Acosta-Viana, Carlos M. Baak-Baak Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular genotyping, histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of bovine papillomatosis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Bovine papillomatosis (BP) is considered the most common health problem in large cattle farms.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study attempts to confirm clinically suspected BP in cattle by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and genotyping analysis of local isolates.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: According to morphological appearance and lesion features, a cross sectional study of 54 clinically diagnosed BP cattle was assigned to this current investigation from May to August (2021) in Al-Kut district (Wasit Province, Iraq) private veterinary clinics using purposive sampling technique based on set criteria. The cattle were diagnosed clinically, and the tissues were collected and some fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and other stored frozen and examined by histopathological technique, IHC, and PCR assays.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Using PCR assay, all cattle were positive for the BPV L1 gene. According to detect the L1 gene, analysis of the phylogenetic tree showed that local BPV cattle isolates were closely related to the NCBI-BLAST BPV type-1 and type-2 of the Polish equine isolate (KF284133.1) and BPV Brazilian <em>Bostaurus</em> isolate (MH187961.1), respectively. Histological detection showed there were acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, epidermal thickening, severe infiltration of mononuclear cells, massive hemorrhage, dermal fibroplasias, multifocal spongiosis, moderate neovascularization, moderate to severe elongation of the retention ridge towards the dermis, parakeratosis, rings of calcification, and necrosis with nuclear pyknosis of some spinosum cells. Immunohistochemical findings of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor receptor and Fascin showed a significant variation in values of immunoreaction in the dermis and epidermis. These results ranged from negative (0) to mild positive (+1) to moderate positive (+2) reactions.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study provided essential molecular and genotyping data to improve our knowledge by emphasizing the crucial of IHC as an elegant diagnostic method to detect cellular alterations.</p> Hasanain A. J. Gharban, Sattar J. J. AL-Shaeli, Talal Jabal Hussen Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of efflux pump inhibitory activity of some plant extracts and using them as adjuvants to potentiate the inhibitory activity of some antibiotics against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> <p><strong>Background</strong>: Antibiotic-resistant pathogens became a real global threat to human and animal health. This needs to concentrate the efforts to minimize and control these organisms. Efflux pumps are considered one of the important strategies used by bacteria to exclude harmful materials from the cell. Inhibition of these pumps can be an active strategy against multidrug resistance pathogens. There are two sources of efflux pump inhibitors that can be used, chemical and natural inhibitors. The chemical origin efflux pump inhibitors have many toxic side effects while the natural origin is characterized by a wide margin of safety for the host cell.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: In this study, the ability of some plant extracts like (propolis show rosemary, clove, capsaicin, and cumin) to potentiate the inhibitory activity of some antibiotics such as (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin) against Staphylococcus aureus pathogen were tested.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Efflux pump inhibitory activity of the selected plant extracts was tested using an ethidium bromide (EtBr) accumulation assay.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results have shown that Propolis has a significant synergistic effect in combination with ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamycin. While it has no effect with tetracycline or ampicillin. Also, no synergic effect was noticed in a combination of the minimum inhibitory concentration for the selected plant extracts (rosemary, clove, capsaicin, and cumin) with any of the tested antibiotics. Interestingly, according to the results of the EtBr accumulation assay, Propolis has potent inhibitory activity against the S. aureus (MRS usa300) pump system.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study suggests that Propolis might act as a resistance breaker that is able to restore the activity of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamycin against S. aureus strains, in case of the efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.</p> Dhama Al-Sallami, Amjed Alsultan, Kadhim Hassan Abbas, Simon R. Clarke Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Methanol extract of Black soldier fly (<i>Hermetia illucens</i>) prepupae against <i>Aeromonas</i> and <i>Staphylococcus</i> aureus bacteria <i>in vitro</i> and in <i>silico</i> <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Staphylococcus</em> and <em>Aeromonas</em> bacteria are pathogens in humans and animals. The therapy disrupts the virulence structure of the bacteria, resulting in bacterial death. Currently, chemical drugs have resulted in many resistant bacteria, so it is necessary to find alternative natural materials that are not toxic and do not quickly induce resistance.<br><strong>Aims</strong>: This study aimed to analyze the potential of methanol extract from Black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae as an antibacterial agent against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and<em> Aeromonas</em> through <em>in silico</em> and in vitro tests.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The BSF prepupae methanol extract was analyzed for protein and fatty acid contents. Disc diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration test were used for in vitro tests against Staphylococcis and <em>Aeromonas</em>. Molecular docking of the active ingredients (defensin, chitin, and chitosan as well as fatty acids) in BSF was downloaded from the NCBI database and docked by the Hex Cuda version 8.0 program with Correlation type parameters Shape + Electro and Grid Dimension version 0.6. Docking results were analyzed using the Discovery Studio program version 21.1.1.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The highest fatty acid contents in the extract were palmitic acid and myristic acid. Methanol extract from BSF prepupae acted as a bactericidal agent against<em> S. aureus</em> at a concentration of 320 mg/ml, in contrast to <em>Aeromonas</em>, which still showed bacterial growth. The results of the <em>in silico</em> test showed that defensin–aerolysin and defensin–hemolysin was bound to the same active site area. However, the amount of binding energy produced by 69-Defensin-<br>83-aerolysin was higher than all defensin types in BSF against <em>Aeromonas</em>. Chitin and chitosan showed a bond on the active site of aerolysin and hemolysin, but chitosan had a stronger bond than chitin. <em>In silico</em> study also showed the strongest binding affinity of BSF fatty acids to isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase of <em>S. aureus</em>.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study showed that methanol extract from BSF prepupae had potential capability as an antibacterial agent against <em>S. aureus</em> than <em>Aeromonas</em> in vitro and <em>in silico</em>.</p> Dahliatul Qosimah, Sanarto Santoso, Maftuch Maftuch, Husnul Khotimah, Loeki Enggar Fitri, Aulanni’am Aulanni’am, Lucia Tri Suwanti Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Clinicopathological study of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma in animals in East Java, Indonesia, from 2017 to 2022 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is common cancer derived from the renal epithelium. One of the rarest cases of RCC is sarcomatoid RCC (sRCC). The occurrence of sRCC in animals is not clearly demonstrated.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to observe the clinicopathological characteristics of sRCC in animals from East Java, Indonesia, from 2017 to 2022.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This study used patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with sRCC in our laboratory from 2017 to 2022. The data on the clinical characteristics of animals, hematology, serology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were retrieved and tabulated. The data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using a simple descriptive method and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 26, respectively.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Fourteen cases of sRCC in animals have been identified in this study. It was found in rodents, dogs, and cats. sRCC predominantly occurred in rodents (57.14%) without specific clinical signs. The common histopathological findings of sRCC were epithelial renal cells transition into elongated atypical spindle cells. In addition, other histopathological patterns of a renal epithelial cell such as clear cell, tubule-cystic, and papillary also have been found. IHC by using antibodies demonstrates that PAX8 is expressed on sRCC tissue samples 92.85% (13/14 samples). Hence, PAX8 could be used as a supporting method for establishing the diagnosis of sRCC in animals. Hematology and serological tests did not correlate to the type of sRCC either pure sRCC or dedifferentiated sRCC. sRCC results in hypercreatinemia in rodents and dogs.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study shows that the incidence of sRCC in animals is rare. Animals with sRCC did not show any specific clinical signs. The histopathological finding is quite difficult to be differentiated from the other RCC. PAX8 expression on renal tissue samples is useful in supporting the diagnosis of sRCC in animals.</p> Yos Adi Prakoso, Sitarina Widyarini, Fradika Cahya Faresy, Yudha Sapto Utomo Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular characterization of norovirus and sapovirus detected in animals and humans in Costa Rica: Zoo-anthropozoonotic potential of human norovirus GII.4 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Noroviruses (NoV) and sapoviruses (SaV) are major causes of acute viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, as well as gastrointestinal infections in animals. However, it has not been determined whether these viruses are zoonotic pathogens.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: In this study, we investigated the presence of NoV and SaV in stool samples from dogs, pigs, cows, and humans to determine some aspects of the molecular epidemiology and the genetic relationship of several strains present in these species.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of NoV and SaV strains present in stool samples from humans and dogs with diarrhea, pigs, and cattle with and without diarrhea were carried out during fragmented periods from 2002 to 2012.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Of all samples analyzed, 11.6% (123/1,061) of the samples were positive for NoV and 0.88% (9/1,023) were positive for SaV. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed 16 human strains of NoV (HuNoV) belonging to HuNoV G?/ GII.P2 (1), GII.4/GII.P4 (5), G?/GII.P4 (9), and GII.6/GII.P6 (1) and allowed us to verify and assign three strains of human SaV to genotypes GI.2 (1) and GII.5 (2). In dogs, eight strains of NoV [HuNoV G?/GII.P4 (4) and canine G?/ GVI.P1 (4)] and two strains of canine SaV were determined. In pigs, six strains were assigned to HuNoV G?/GII.P4 and four strains to porcine SaV were assigned to genogroup GIII (2), GVIII (1), and GXI (1). In bovines, five strains were characterized as HuNoV G?/GII.P4.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study showed that NoV and SaV prototype strains have been present in humans and dogs in Costa Rica. Additionally, it revealed that the zoonotic potential of SaV is very limited, while the zoonotic implications for HuNoV GII.4 are stronger due to the simultaneous circulation of strains related to HuNoV GII.4 in four species, which suggests a zoo-anthropozoonosis.</p> Derling José Pichardo Matamoros, Cristina Solís Worsfold, Rocío Cortés Campos, Hilda María Bolaños Acuña, Elena Campos Chacón, Carlos Francisco Jiménez Sánchez Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Vitamin D ameliorates liver pathology in mice caused by exposure to endocrine disruptor bisphenol A <p><strong>Background</strong>: Increasing evidence suggests that bisphenol A (BPA) induces liver pathological changes. Further, an association between BPA and circulating vitamin D (VitD) levels were documented.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The role of VitD in BPA-induced liver pathological changes was explored in this study.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Healthy 4.5-week-old male (n = 35) and female (n = 35) Swiss albino mice were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into control and treated groups. The control groups were further divided into sham (no treatment) and vehicle (corn oil), whereas the treated groups were also divided into VitD (2195 U/kg), BPA (50 μg/kg), and BPA + VitD (50 μg/kg + 2195 U/kg) groups. For 6 weeks (twice a week), the animals were dosed intraperitoneally. One week later (at 10.5-weeks-old), the animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histological analyses.<br><strong>Results</strong>: BPA produced a considerable rise in the body and liver weights in both genders of mice when compared to control mice. BPA also caused significant increases in the liver damage markers alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). It also induced liver histopathological changes, including higher apoptotic indices in both genders. On the other hand, treatment with VitD considerably reduced liver damage and slightly decreased the apoptotic index rate. The ALP, ALT, and GGT levels were also markedly reduced. VitD has been proven to have a protective effect on both genders.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: According to our findings, VitD protects mice from BPA-induced liver damage, possibly via suppressing liver damage markers.</p> Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Suhila M. Zaed, Ismail M. Hdud, Taher Shaibi Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of ethanol extract from <i>Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium</i> leaves on Ki-67 proliferation and dysplasia severity in a rat model of oral squamous cell carcinoma <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant tumor that can rapidly infiltrate the oral epithelial tissue and cause high mortality worldwide because the available therapies are less effective. <em>Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium</em> leaf contains secondary metabolites as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimutagenic.<br><strong>Aims</strong>: The study aimed to analyze the ethanolic extract of <em>C. cinerariifolium</em> leaf in reducing proliferation (Ki-67) and the degree of dysplasia in OSCC rats.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This study used male Sprague Dawley induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) 0.5% and divided into five treatment groups, namely positive control/C+ (sick), negative control/C- (healthy), and treatment group induced with DMBA and given extract<em> C. cinerariifolium</em> leaf with successive doses of T1, T2, and T3 (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw). The oral epithelium was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically stained with a Ki-67 monoclonal antibody. The statistical analysis utilizes the one-way analysis of variance test.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that T1 at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw could significantly reduce Ki-67 expression and the degree of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED; p &lt; 0.05) close to healthy controls.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The conclusion shows that<em> C. cinerariifolium</em> leaf extract can be a therapy against OSCC by decreasing cell proliferation and the degree of OED.</p> Anik Listiyana, Risma Aprinda Kristanti, Al Mazida Fauzil Aishaqeena, Anggun Putri Maulana Ahmad, Lina Fitria Astari, Christyaji Indradmojo, Fidia Rizkiah Inayatilah Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Thermal tolerance of <i>Cronobacter sakazakii</i> and <i>Cronobacter pulveris</i> in reconstituted infant milk formula <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cronobacter sspecies are the most significant foodborne pathogen in infant milk formula (IMF). These pathogens have been incriminated in severe forms of neonatal meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis with a high mortality rate.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: This study was performed to elucidate the effect of heat stress on Cronobacter spp. (<em>C. sakazakii</em> and <em>C. pulveris</em>) in reconstituted IMF (RIMF).<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The reconstituted formula was inoculated with five <em>C. sakazakii</em> isolates and four <em>C. pulveris</em> isolates separately. The nine isolates of Cronobacter spp. were heated in RIMF at 48°C, 52°C, 56°C, 60°C, 64°C, and 66°C. The D- and z-values were determined by using linear regression analysis.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The D˗values of all isolates of <em>C. sakazakii</em> (CS1, CS3, CS4, CS5, and CS6) at 48°C, 52°C, 56°C, 60°C, 64°C, and 66°C were in the ranges 7.29–23.47, 2.77–15.50, 0.62–1.04, 0.62–1.02, 0.62–1.00, 0.62–1.00 minutes, respectively; while, the z˗values extended from 2.50°C to 4.28°C. The D˗ values of <em>C. pulveris</em> isolates (CP1, CP2, CP3, CP4) were in the ranges 7.60–22.32, 1.42–8.45, 0.62–1.08, 0.62–0.78, 0.62–0.78, 0.62–0.79 minutes at 48°C, 52°C, 56°C, 60°C, 64°C, 66°C, respectively and the calculated z-values ranged from 3.33°C to 4.89°C.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study may contribute to improving the understanding of the behavior of <em>C. sakazakii</em> and <em>C. pulveris</em> isolates in RIMF at various heat stress temperatures and may participate in the effective control of these pathogens in infant food production.</p> Aboubaker M. Garbaj, Samira A. Farag, Jihan A. Sherif, Aml F. Lawila, Hanan L. Eshamah, Salah M. Azwai, Fatim T. Gammoudi, Hesham T. Naas, Allaaeddin A. El Salabi, Ibrahim M. Eldaghayes Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Use of a gum elastic bougie in a cat with severe upper airway stenosis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Gum elastic bougie (GEB) is an airway management device for patients who are difficult to intubate and its use has been reported in human medicine. However, to our knowledge, no reports in veterinary medicine have described oxygenation using GEB. We describe a case in which GEB was used to maintain oxygenation in a cat with severe upper airway stenosis.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: A 10-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with a laryngeal tumor with severe upper airway stenosis. During anesthesia induction, the normal laryngeal structure could not be confirmed; orotracheal intubation was difficult, resulting in a “cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate” status. The GEB was inserted, making it possible to oxygenate the cat until a permanent tracheostoma could be created, but hypoventilation was noted.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although GEB are not useful for proper ventilation, they can be useful for temporary oxygenation in veterinary medicine when airway management is difficult.</p> Keiko Kato, Takaharu Itami, Shidow Torisu, Toshikazu Sakai, Kazuto Yamashita Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Congenital porto-pulmonary shunt in a dog <p><strong>Background</strong>: Congenital extra-hepatic porto-systemic shunts (CEPS) are a non-rare vascular anomaly observed in dogs, most commonly in small and toy pure breeds. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) examination is considered the gold standard imaging modality for the diagnosis of anomalous vascular connections.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: An anomalous congenital porto-pulmonary shunt was incidentally diagnosed in a 5-year-old French Bulldog. The anomalous vessel originated from the ventral aspect of the portal vein and went cranially towards the esophageal hiatus, entering the lobar vein of the caudal left pulmonary lobe. The dog did not show any significant clinical or computed tomography angiography-perceived hepatic abnormalities and no signs of portal hypertension were evidenced. No case of porto-pulmonary shunt in veterinary medicine have ever been reported, while in humans it was rarely described secondarily to portal hypertension, severe hepatopathies or complex cardiac malformations.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: CTA must be considered the best imaging modality for the diagnosis also of unusual CEPS and in the author’s opinion the congenital porto-pulmonary shunt described in the patient was of little or no clinical relevance.</p> Federico Puccini Leoni, Andrea Arcangeli, Riccardo Di Puccio, Filippo Cinti Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Age changes in extramural digestive glands of sheep and rabbits in the postembryonic period <p><strong>Background</strong>: The study of the peculiarities of the anatomy of sheep and rabbits' digestive systems is an important way to improve the efficiency of these animals' breeding.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of the presented research was to study structural changes of such digestive glands as the liver and the pancreas which occur in the process of ontogenesis in sheep and rabbits.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Sheep of the “Kazakh fat-tailed semi-coarse-wooled” breed (n = 8) raised in the “Sayan” private peasant agriculture and rabbits of the “Grey Giant” breed (n = 8), raised on the mini rabbit farm of the Agriculture Faculty of Shakarim University were used in the research. Two experimental animal groups were formed (of sheep, “Kazakh fat-tailed semi-coarse-wooled” breed, n = 8; rabbits, “Grey Giant” breed, n = 8). The liver and pancreas' ontogenesis development has been studied in these animals.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The study presents a holistic view of the macro-microscopic structure of the liver and the pancreas of animals in crucial age periods, stages, and phases of postembryonic ontogenesis (by the example of sheep and rabbits). The authors have traced age stages of adaptive change and structural-functional change of stromal-parenchymatous structures of the liver in sheep and rabbits taking into account stages and crucial phases of development.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Development of the liver and the pancreas are characterized by discontinuous growth in the process of postnatal ontogenesis. A crucially important period is the first months after birth, during which the weight and functionality of these organs grow rapidly.</p> Meiramgul S. Zhakiyanova, Saule M. Seilgazina, Akerke Ygiyeva, Gulnara I. Dzhamanova, Kamil Y. Derbyshev Copyright (c) Sat, 18 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000