Open Veterinary Journal <p><em>Open Veterinary Journal</em> is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal. (Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes) (Prof. Salah Azwai) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 13:47:24 +0000 OJS 60 Animal coronaviruses and coronavirus disease 2019: Lesson for One Health approach <p>Coronaviruses are a group of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that are broadly classified into alpha, beta, gamma, and delta coronavirus genera based on the viral genome. Coronavirus was not thought to be a significant problem in humans until the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2002, but infections in animals, including pigs, cats, dogs, and poultry, have been problematic for a long time. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, drew special attention towards this virus once again. The intermediate host of this novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is yet to be determined, but it has a very close genomic relationship with the bat coronavirus (Bat-CoV), RaTG13 strain, and the pangolin coronaviruses. As veterinary medicine has a long-term experience dealing with coronaviruses, this could be helpful in better understanding and detecting the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and drive human medicine towards the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs through the collaborative and transdisciplinary approaches of One Health.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Animal Coronaviruses, COVID-19, One Health, SARS-CoV-2. </p> Uddab Poudel, Deepak Subedi, Saurav Pantha, Santosh Dhakal Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Veterinary acutherapy in management of musculoskeletal disorders: An eye-opener to the developing countries’ veterinarians <p>Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners believed that the maintenance of the health status of any individual or animal is by the harmonious flow of <em>Chi</em> (life force) along a pathway known as the meridian. Interruption or blockage of Chi brings about disorders, pain, and diseases. Acutherapy, therefore, aims at correcting the interruption or blockage of the harmonious flow of <em>Chi</em> along the meridian to restore the healthy condition of the body system. This correction could be accomplished by either acupuncture or acupressure, and are both collectively referred to as acutherapy. This<br>form of therapy has been used in both humans and animals for several decades. It is, however, just gaining popularity in the treatment of humans and is still not yet in practice among veterinarians for animal patients in most developing countries like Nigeria. This review, therefore, is aimed at exposing veterinarians from the developing countries to the general application of acutherapy with emphasis on the musculoskeletal system and associated pain where it is most applied. It is highly recommended that the universities, where Veterinary Medicine is studied in developing countries, should endeavor to train their veterinary surgeons in this area and see to how acutherapy can be included in the curriculum.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Acupressure, Acupuncture, Acutherapy, Musculoskeletal, Veterinary.</p> Olawale Alimi Alimi, Adamu Abdul Abubakar, Abubakar Sadiq Yakubu, Abdullahi Aliyu, Salman Zubairu Abulkadir Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Application of gene therapy in the treatment of superficial digital flexor tendon injury in horses <p><strong>Background</strong>: Tendon injuries are one of the most common causes of orthopedic disorders in horses. Such injuries involve a long course of&nbsp; treatment and recovery. The most promising method of treating these injuries is the use of recombinant proteins and gene therapy.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In this work, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of plasmid DNA (pDNA) containing two species-specific coding sequences, i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor 164 (VEGF164) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), in the treatment of severe damage to the tendon of the superficial digital flexor.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A pDNA construct was used to restore the damaged superficial digital flexor tendon in the horse.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study showed that the administration of pDNA encoding VEGF164 and FGF2 genes at the injury area increased the regenerative activities of the damaged tendon.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study shows the therapeutic properties of genetic constructs (pDNA) and contributes to the<br>advancements in the use of these therapies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Fibroblast growth factor 2, Plasmid DNA, Superficial digital flexor, Vascular endothelial growth factor.</p> Alexandr Aimaletdinov, Gulnur Mindubaeva, Svetlana Khalikova, Emmanuel Kabwe, Alexandra Salmakova, Natalia Alexandrova, Catrin Rutland, Albert Rizvanov, Elena Zakirova Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Combination of bleomycin and cisplatin as adjuvant electrochemotherapy protocol for the treatment of incompletely excised feline injection-site sarcomas: A retrospective study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Feline injection-site sarcomas (FISSs) are mesenchymal tumors that can occur in cats after injections of different medical agents and&nbsp; are easily prone to recurrence.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> The aims of this study were to report treatment outcomes for cats with feline injection-site sarcomas (FISSs) treated with both bleomycin and cisplatin, per adjuvant electrochemotherapy (ECT) protocol.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The medical records of cats with a diagnosis of FISS that were treated with ECT using both bleomycin and cisplatin were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 27 cats were available for statistical evaluation of their response. The cats received intravenous 20 mg/m2 bleomycin, and the tumor bed and margins were infiltrated with cisplatin at the dose of 0.5 mg/cm2. Then, the trains of permeabilizing biphasic electric pulses lasting 50 + 50 μseconds each were delivered in bursts of 1,300 V/cm using caliper electrodes under sedation. A second session was performed 2 weeks<br>later.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Side effects were limited to local inflammation in three cats. Three cats developed local tumor recurrence at days 180, 180, and 545 after surgery, two cats developed recurrence and metastases at 100 and 505 days after surgery, and two cats experienced distant metastases. A median time to recurrence could not be calculated as over 80% of the study population remained disease free or were censored due to death from other causes. Mean survival time was 985 days, and median cumulative survival for all cases was 1,000 days.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> When compared to historical controls, the results of this study demonstrate the superior rates of tumorfree survival and disease-free interval. This adjuvant therapy could be a useful addition to the current options for FISS in consideration of its efficacy, limited toxicity, and ease of administration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bleomycin, Cat, Cisplatin, Electrochemotherapy, Sarcoma. </p> Enrico P. Spugnini, Bruno Vincenzi, Francesca Carocci, Chiara Bonichi, Francesco Menicagli, Alfonso Baldi Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Splenic T-cell lymphoma in a North American River Otter (<i>Lontra canadensis</i>) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Splenic lymphoma is commonly reported in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorious furo), but very rarely reported in wild Mustelidae species, including otters. One report described B-cell splenic lymphoma in an Asian smallclawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) that metastasized and was the primary reasoning for humane euthanasia (Stedman and Mills, 2014).<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: The current report describes a case of splenic T-cell lymphoma in a captive North American river otter (Lontra canadensis). The otter died several weeks after splenectomy and no evidence of metastasis was found on gross necropsy or histopathological evaluation.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The splenectomy performed on this individual was presumptively curative for its splenic lymphoma. Extensive myocardial fibrosis was found, and suspected to have caused severe cardiac arrhythmia leading to acute death.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Fibrosis, Mustelid, Neoplasia, Splenectomy</p> Crystal L. Matt, Christoph Mans, Grayson Doss, Marie Pinkerton, Betsy Elsmo Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Extent of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in whole muscle meat, meat products and seafood sold in Libyan market <p><strong>Background:</strong> Whole muscle meat, meat products, and seafood contain different nutrients in adequate quantity providing a better environment for presence and replication of different microorganisms. There are underreported and inaccurate estimations of foodborne diseases due to the lack of effective surveillance systems in Libya.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the extent of microbiological contamination of whole muscle meat, meat products, and seafood.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A total number of 731 samples of retail meat were collected from different stores in four cities in Libya. Samples were analyzed for aerobic plate count and subjected to microbiological enumeration and isolation techniques, followed by molecular identification by PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed contamination of samples with enteric and spoilage bacteria. Fifteen genera of spoilage bacteria yielded 149 isolates which were detected and identified by PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA as: <em>Proteus spp., Provedencia spp., Raouttella ornithinolytical, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Morganella morgi,</em> <em>Shewanella algea, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Listonella pelagia, Kluyvera spp., Pectobacterium spp., Brenneria spp.,</em> <em>Klebsiella spp., Acintobacter radioresistens, </em>and<em> Pantoea spp</em>. While for pathogenic bacteria, 143 isolates distributed among nine genera were identified by PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA as: <em>Bacillus spp., Escherichia spp.,</em> <em>Shigella spp., Enterococci spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococci spp., Salmonella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Vibrio</em> <em>spp.</em>. Many isolated bacteria are zoonotic bacteria with high importance for public&nbsp; health.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Excessive handling and processing of meat and meat products seems to be one of the poorest microbiological qualities. These findings ought to be helpful in risk assessments and quality assurance of meat in order to improve food safety.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Libya, Meat products, Pathogenic bacteria, Spoilage bacteria, Whole muscle meat.</p> Hanan L. Eshamah, Hesham T. Naas, Aboubaker M. Garbaj, Salah M. Azwai, Fatim T. Gammoudi, Ilaria Barbieri, Ibrahim M. Eldaghayes Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of pigment epithelium-derived factor concentration in equine amniotic membrane homogenate and its <i>in-vitro</i> vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition effect in tears of dogs with vascularized ulcerative keratitis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Corneal neovascularization can result from many pathological processes affecting the ocular surface leading to disturbances and&nbsp; opacifications that reduce corneal clarity and may impact vision. In veterinary medicine, the use of topical corticosteroid is contraindicated in the presence of ulcerative keratitis, and there is sparse research regarding safe medical alternatives to inhibit corneal neovascularization in dogs to improve visual outcome.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) concentration in equine amniotic membrane homogenate (EAMH) and its in-vitro vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in tears of dogs with vascularized ulcerative keratitis.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Homogenates from 10 equine amniotic membranes (AM) were analyzed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of equine PEDF and VEGF. Forty tear samples were collected from both eyes of dogs diagnosed with vascularized ulcerative keratitis, and 50 samples from healthy dogs. Samples from affected eyes were allocated to G1 – affected undiluted tears; G2 – affected tears diluted with phosphate-buffer solution; G3 – affected tears treated with low-concentrated EAMH; and G4 – affected tears treated with high-concentrated EAMH. Tears from the unaffected contralateral eyes were composed in G5, while G6 was composed by tears from healthy dogs (control). The presence and levels of VEGF were evaluated in all groups by Western blot and ELISA.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The PEDF:VEGF ratio in EAMH was 110:1. An increase in VEGF levels was observed in tears from eyes with vascularized corneal ulcers (G1) as well as in contralateral tears (G5), compared to normal dogs (G6). Highconcentrated EAMH provided a greater decrease in VEGF levels in-vitro compared to low-concentrated EAMH.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: EAMHs exhibited high concentrations of PEDF in comparison to VEGF and were able to partially decrease VEGF levels in tears of dogs with vascularized ulcers, in-vitro. Our results suggest that VEGF concentration is elevated in tears of dogs with active vascularized ulcerative keratitis in both affected and contralateral eyes compared to that of healthy dogs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Amniotic membrane, Corneal neovascularization, Dog, PEDF, VEGF.</p> Tatiane Villar, Ana L. Pascoli, Sabal Chaulagain, Bahaa A. Fadl-Alla, Bianca C. Martins Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation of enterotoxigenic <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> harboring <i>seb</i> gene and enteropathogenic <i>Escherichia coli</i> (serogroups O18, O114, and O125) from soft and hard artisanal cheeses in Egypt <p><strong>Background:</strong> Soft and hard artisanal cheeses are regularly consumed in Egypt. These products are usually processed from raw milk which may&nbsp; harbor many pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: To evaluate the safety of some artisanal cheeses in Egypt, such as Ras, Domiati, and Mish, through chemical and microbiological examination.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: One hundred and fifty random samples of traditional Ras, Domiati, and Mish cheeses (50 each) were microbiologically and chemically analyzed. Counts of total bacteria, presumptive coliform, staphylococci, yeast, and mold were estimated. Furthermore, isolation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was performed, followed by PCR confirmation; isolates of <em>E. coli</em> were examined for the presence of virulence genes; on the other hand, the detection of the five classical enterotoxin genes of <em>S. aureus</em> was performed using multiplex PCR. Regarding chemical analysis, moisture, salt, and acidity content were measured. Correlations between chemical and microbial findings were investigated.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Mean counts of total bacteria, presumptive coliform, <em>staphylococci,</em> yeast, and mold were (2 × 10<sup>8</sup>, 3 × 10<sup>6</sup> and 1 × 10<sup>7</sup> ), (3 × 10<sup>5</sup>, 5 × 10 and 5 × 10<sup>2</sup>), (1 × 10<sup>6</sup>, 4 × 10<sup>5 </sup>and 1 × 10<sup>5</sup>), (3 × 10<sup>5</sup>, 1 × 10<sup>5</sup> and 5 × 10<sup>5</sup>), and (7 × 10<sup>3</sup>, 4 × 10<sup>3</sup> and 3 × 10<sup>4</sup>) for Ras, Domiati and Mish cheeses,&nbsp; respectively. Serological identification of suspected <em>E. coli</em> revealed that E. coli O125 was isolated from Ras and Domiati samples, <em>E. coli</em> O18 was recovered from Ras samples, while <em>E. coli</em> O114 was isolated from Mish samples. PCR results revealed that all detected isolates of <em>E. coli</em> were positive for both iss (increased serum survival) and fimH (type 1 fimbriae) genes. Concerning isolated <em>S. aureus</em>, all examined products were harboring <em>S. aureus</em> enterotoxigenic strains, with seb and sed genes being the most common. The mean values of moisture, salt, and acidity were (30.03, 56.44, and 58.70), (3.30, 6.63, and 7.56) and (0.65, 0.68, and 0.50) for Ras, Domiati, and Mish cheeses, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Enterotoxigenic <em>S. aureus</em> harboring seb gene and enteropathogenic <em>E. coli</em> (serogroups O18, O114, and O125) were frequently isolated from soft and hard artisanal cheeses in Egypt. Therefore, strict hygienic measures should be applied during their manufacture, handing, and distribution.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Domiati,<em> E. coli</em> virulence genes, Mish, Ras, <em>S. aureus</em> enterotoxins.</p> Ola Wagih Hegab, Eman F. Abdel-Latif, Ashraf Ahmed Moawad Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Use of saline contrast ultrasonography in the diagnosis of complete jugular vein occlusion in a horse <p><strong>Background</strong>: Thrombophlebitis and thrombosis are the most common causes of jugular vein occlusion in horses. Medical and surgical treatments aim to recanalize the occluded vessel and reduce proximal venous congestion and edema.<br><strong>Case Description</strong>: The present report describes a clinical case of equine jugular vein thrombosis (JVT) with complete vein occlusion diagnosed by saline contrast ultrasonography (SCU) and confirmed by contrast venography.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results demonstrated that the SCU test can be easily performed and objectively interpreted using standard ultrasound equipment; it is not expensive and it does not require x-ray exposure. The SCU test is a valid tool to assess vessel patency and presence of collateral circulation in JVT. The test could therefore be used to monitor the progression of the disease and the effectiveness of therapy against JVT in horses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Contrast, Equine, Jugular, Thrombus, Ultrasound.</p> Andrea Corda, Nicolò Columbano, Valentina Secchi, Antonio Scanu, Maria Luisa Pinna Parpaglia, Giovanni Mario Careddu, Eraldo Sanna Passino Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prostatectomy as a treatment for canine prostate cancer: a literature review <p>Canine prostate cancer is a relatively rare condition with a poor prognosis. Both total and partial prostatectomy have been described as treatment&nbsp; strategies for this condition. Based on the available literature, it is clear that prostatectomy is usually employed in combination with other&nbsp; therapeutic strategies. However, it is apparent that the procedure is currently not suitable for curative intent. Its role as a palliative therapy has been better established. Among others, urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections were reported as important complications. The reported&nbsp; frequencies varied per study. Future research is needed to establish the role of prostatectomy in the treatment of canine prostate cancer. Based on the current lack of prospective studies, it is difficult to state whether prostatectomy should become a routine practice or first-line standard of care. Novel protocols for treating canine prostate cancer should be established.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cancer, Carcinoma, Dogs, Prostate, Prostatectomy. </p> Jelle Stans Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Paraprobiotics and postbiotics: Contemporary and promising natural antibiotics alternatives and their applications in the poultry field <p>With the high rise of drug resistance in microbial populations, there has been a surge in researches to find new natural antibiotics alternative&nbsp; compounds that can be used safely in both humans and animals. The main goals of using this category of alternatives are maintaining the gut microbiome in healthy conditions and preventing the attachment of pathogenic organisms at the early life stages. Probiotics, prebiotics, and&nbsp; synbiotics have been widely used for several years as growth promoters and as preventive measures against several enteric pathogens with&nbsp; successful results. Recently, paraprobiotics and postbiotics are derivatives of probiotic cultures and have been used in humans, animals, and&nbsp; poultry. They are regarded as immunostimulators, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, and anti-microbial, as well as growth promoters. Till now, there is scanty information about the use of paraprobiotics and postbiotics in animals or in the poultry sector. Accordingly, this review article has focused on defining these new categories of natural alternatives with descriptions of their types, functions, and uses, especially in the poultry field.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Immunomodulation, Paraprobiotics, Performance, Postbiotics, Poultry.</p> Wafaa A. Abd El-Ghany Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Association of BoLA DRB3 gene polymorphisms with BoHV-1 infection and zootechnical traits <p><strong>Background:</strong> The dairy sector is one of the leading in agricultural production sectors in the world and the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an&nbsp; important pathogen that causes great losses in most production systems. Moreover, BoLA DRB3 immunological gene presents different alleles related to protection against many pathogens.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Serological diagnosis was carried out to determine the BoHV-1 infection and through PCR-RFLP 506 Holstein cows from several&nbsp; municipalities of Antioquia were genotyped for BoLA DRB3.2 gene polymorphisms.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Alleles 8, 16, 22, and 24 were the most common out of the 42 alleles found. By indirect ELISA technique, a 58.7% prevalence of BoHV-1 infection in this population was diagnosed and Odd ratios for found alleles were calculated by logistic regression; the only significant association was held for allele 37, which showed that it effects confers susceptibility to infection. On the other hand, by using generalized linear models, a significant association between BoLA DRB3.2 gene and milk and fat yield in primiparous and services per conception in multiparous was found, with the most favorable alleles being 11 and 28 in primiparous and 22 and 28 in multiparous; allele 37 was unfavorable only in primiparous.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: BoLA DRB3.2 gene polymorphisms have shown high variability and significant effects on Holstein cattle and their performance in production systems in Antioquia are at both sanitary or health and productive levels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Holstein, Immunity, Prevalence, Production, Reproduction.</p> Juan Pablo Arismendy Morales, Albeiro López-Herrera, Julián Echeverri Zuluaga Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Feline aortic thromboembolism: Presentation, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of 15 cats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Feline aortic thromboembolism (FATE) is a fatal disease where a blood clot gets lodged into the aortic trifurcation.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> This study describes the diagnosis and treatment outcome of FATE in 15 clinical cases.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifteen cats with a sudden onset of hind limb paresis/paralysis, vocalization, and pain were admitted to the surgery clinic. A full case history was obtained and clinical, orthopedic, neurologic, radiographic, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic examinations were performed for each cat. The treatment protocol included daily administration of multiple anticoagulant drugs with different mode of actions and meloxicam for 7 successive days. Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy (clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid) was continued for 6 months. All data were statistically<br>analyzed and the correlation between time of admission and treatment outcome was tested using Pearson’s correlation coefficient.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The case history and clinical, orthopedic, and neurologic examinations revealed a sudden onset of hind limb<br>paralysis (n = 12) or paresis (n = 3) associated with vocalization and pain, absence of trauma, cold and pale paws of hind limbs (n = 13, 86.7%) or cyanosed hind paws (n = 2, 13.3%), absence of femoral pulsation, shallow and rapid open-mouth respiration (61 ± 8 breaths/minutes), hypothermia (37.9°C ± 0.6°C) and tachycardia (155 ± 12 beats/ minutes), with a muffled heart sound in four cats (26.7%). Radiography revealed no abnormalities in the hind limbs, pelvis, and spines, cardiomegaly in five cats (33.3%), mild pleural effusion and vascular pattern of the lung in six cats (40%), and Valentine’s heart shape in four cats (26.7%). Electrocardiography (ECG) revealed an R-wave&lt; 0.9 mV, prolongation of QRS interval in five cats (33.3%), and conduction disturbance in four cats (26.7%). Echocardiography was consistent with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in five cats (33.3%). A statistically significant (p = 0.023) strong negative correlation (r = −0.6) was reported between time of admission and subsequent early treatment and recovery from clinical signs. The treatment was successful in nine cats (60%), while four cats (26.7) were euthanized and two cats (13.3%) were subjected to hind limb amputation, at the owners’ requests.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Clinical signs, radiography, ECG, and echocardiography are valuable for diagnosis of FATE. The outcome of the multiple anticoagulants therapy depends mainly upon early diagnosis and treatment within the first 6 hours from the onset of clinical signs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Anticoagulant, Aortic thromboembolism, Cardiomyopathy, Echocardiography, Paralysis.</p> Marwa H. Hassan, Ashraf M. Abu-Seida, Faisal A. T Torad, Elham A. Hassan Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of an emerging novel sublineage Ind2001BD1 and lineage PanAsia of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in cattle in Manikgonj district of Bangladesh, 2018 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an endemic disease of cloven-hoofed animals in Bangladesh and multiple outbreaks occur every&nbsp; year because of the FMD virus (FMDV).<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of the present investigation was to determine the molecular characterization of the VP1 coding region of FMDV serotype O outbreak in cattle.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of four tongue epithelial specimens were collected from clinically FMD-positive cattle during June 2018 in Manikgonj district of Bangladesh.<br><strong>Results</strong>: All four isolates were recorded positive for FMDV serotype O. The phylogenetic analysis showed that two isolates were clustered within an emerging novel sublineage Ind2001BD1 under lineage Ind2001 of FMDV serotype O, which was identified during 2012–2016 in Bangladesh. One isolate was clustered within the lineage PanAsia of FMDV serotype O and was closely related to an isolate identified in Nepal in 2009. The&nbsp; phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that all the four isolates belong to the Middle East–South Asia topotype.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Therefore, multiple lineages of the FMDV serotype O are circulating among the cattle in the outbreak area, which make it more complex for the FMD control program in Bangladesh. A comprehensive study on the genetic characteristics of FMDV across the country is required for effective FMD prevention and control strategy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cattle, Foot-and-mouth disease, Ind2001BD1, Lineage, PanAsia.</p> Md Zulfekar Ali, Md Giasuddin Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000