Sero-prevalence and factors associated with Hepatitis B and C co-infection in pregnant Nigerian women living with HIV Infection

  • Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi
  • Olufunto Olufela Kalejaiye
  • Chidinma Vivian Gab-Okafor
  • David Ayola Oladele
  • Bamidele Oludare Oke
  • Zaidat Adesola Musa
  • Sabdat Ozichu Ekama
  • Harry Ohwodo
  • Endurance Agahowa
  • Titilola Gbajabiamilla
  • Paschal Mbanefo Ezeobi
  • Azuka Okwuraiwe
  • Rosemary Ajuma R Audu
  • Rosemary Nwakaego Okoye
  • Nkiru David Agatha
  • Nkiruka Nonyelum Odunukwe
  • Dan Ifeanyi Onwujekwe
  • Innocent Achanya Ujah
Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, HIV, pregnancy


Introduction: Perinatal and horizontal transmission of Hepatitis B occur in areas of high endemicity as most infections are acquired in the first 5 years of life. Unless Hepatitis B and C infected pregnant women identified, and appropriate treatment provided, children born to these women are at high risk of chronic Hepatitis B (and C) virus infection. The objecive of this study was to determined the prevalence and the factors associated with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians.

Methods: A cross sectional study among HIV Positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in  Lagos Nigeria. The women were screened for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection at enrollment. HIV viral  load, CD4 count, liver transaminases and hemoglobin levels were also determined. Data were managed  with SPSS for windows version. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institution?s Ethical Review  Board.

Results: Of the 2391 studied subjects, 101(4.2%) and 37(1.5%) respectively were seropositive for  Hepatitis B and C Virus infection. Twowomen (0. 08%) had triple infections. blood transfusion, (cOR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.1 - 4.6), history of induced abortion (cOR:2. 2;95% CI:1.3 - 3.6), and elevated baseline ALT (cOR:2. 2; 95%CI:2. 2;4.2) were significantly associated with HBV. History of induced abortion was the only factor found to be associated with HIV/ HCV (cOR: 1.9;95%CI:1. 3-3.9).

Conclusion: Hepatitis B Virus infection (4.2%) is relatively common in our environment and associated  with induced abortion, blood transfusion and elevated baseline transaminase. Hepatitis C Virus infection (1.5%) is less common and associated with only history of induced abortion.


Key words: Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, HIV, pregnancy


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1937-8688