Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in northern region of Senegal: a communitybased study in 2012
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging worldwide epidemic but few data are available in African populations. We aimed to assess prevalence of CKD in adult populations of Saint-Louis (northern Senegal).
Methods: In a population-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1,037 adults aged =18 years living in Saint-Louis. Socio-demographical, clinical and biological data were collected during household visits. Serum creatinine was measured by Jaffé method. We estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the 4-variables MDRD equation and CKD was defined by eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and/or albuminuria > 1g/L. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CKD.
Results: Mean participants age was 47.9 ±16.9 years (18-87) and sex-ratio was 0.52. Majority of participants lived in urban areas (55.3% rural) and had school education (65.6%). Overall prevalences of hypertension, diabetes and obesity were 39.1%, 12.7% and 23.4% respectively. Prevalence of CKD was 4.9% (95% CI= 3.5 6.2) and 0.9% had GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m2. Albuminuria >1g/l was found in 3.5% of people. CKD was significantly more frequent among hypertensive patients compared to normotensive participants. Only 23% of patients were aware of their disease before the survey. After multivariate logistic analysis, presence of CKD was significantly associated with hypertension (OR=1.12, p= 0.02) and age (OR=1.03, p= 0.02).
Conclusion: CKD is frequent in adult population living Northern Senegal. Main associated factors are hypertension and age. Prevention strategy is urgently needed to raise awareness and promote CKD detection and early treatment in both urban and rural areas.
Key words: Chronic kidney disease, epidemiology, population, Senegal