Hypertension, pregnancy, preeclampsia, outcome, intensive care
Introduction: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) are a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. We aimed at determining the trends in admission, profiles and outcomes of women admitted for preeclampsia and eclampsia to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Cameroon. Methods: A retrospective study involving 74 women admitted to the ICU of the Douala General Hospital for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia from January 2007 to December 2014. Clinical profiles and outcome data were obtained from patient records. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results: Of the 74 women admitted to ICU (72.5% for eclampsia), mean age was 30.2years and the majority (90.5%) were aged 20-39 years. While overall trend in admission for HDP increased over the years, mortality remained stable. Mean gestational age (GA) on admission was 34.0 weeks (33.5 for preeclampsia vs 35.4 for eclampsia). Most patients presented with complications of which acute kidney injury was most frequent (66.7%). Visual problems were more common in patients with eclampsia compared to preeclampsia (p=0.01). HELLP syndrome and acute pulmonary oedema (APO) were predominant in patients with preeclampsia, while cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) occurred more in patients with eclampsia. Overall mortality was 24.3%. Presence of APO was associated with mortality in multivariable analysis (O.R.= 0.03, p=0,01). Conclusion: Trends in admission for HDP were increasing with high but stable mortality rate. Patients presented late most of whom with complications. Interventions improving antenatal care services and multidisciplinary management approach may improve maternal outcome in patients with HDP.
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