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Pan African Medical Journal

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Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with brucellosis in dogs in south-western Nigeria

Modupe Comfort Ayoola, Akwoba Joseph Ogugua, Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye, Tunde Olu Joshua, Morenikeji Folusho Banuso, Folashade Julianah Adedoyin, Hezekiah Kehinde Adesokan, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, John Olusoji Abiola, Patricia Ihuaku Otuh, Helen Oyebukola Nottidge, Emma-Jane Dale, Lorraine Perrett, Andrew Taylor, Judy Stack, Simeon Idowu Babalola Cadmus

Abstract


Introduction: In Nigeria, there is limited information on brucellosis particularly in dogs, despite its public health implications. We undertook a sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in dogs to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors for its occurrence in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen dogs in south-western Nigeria for antibodies to Brucella sp using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and Rose Bengal test (RBT), with positive samples confirmed respectively by serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data were analyzed with STATA-12. Results: From the 739 dog sera tested, 81 (10.96%) were positive by RSA and 94 (12.72%) by RBT; these were corroborated with SAT (4/81; 4.94%) and cELISA (1/94; 1.06%), respectively. Logistic regression identified location (OR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.02-0.09), breed (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.34-2.19), age (OR=0.10; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.30) and management system (OR=8.51; 95% CI: 1.07-68.05) as risk factors for Brucella infection by RSA. However, location (OR=10.83; 95% CI: 5.48-21.39) and history of infertility (OR=2.62; 95% CI: 1.41-4.84) were identified as risk factors using RBT. Conclusion: Given the 10.96% to 12.72% seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded in this study, we advocate control of the disease in dogs, and public health education for those at risk of infection. Again, further studies are required to elucidate the role of dogs in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria considering the conducive human-animal interface and ecological factors responsible for the transmission of the disease.

Pan African Medical Journal 2016; 23



http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2016.23.29.7794
AJOL African Journals Online