Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes among hypertensive patients attending Kiambu district Hospital, Kenya: a cross-sectional study

  • Nkatha Meme
  • Samuel Amwayi
  • Ziporrah Nganga
  • Esther Buregyeya


Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are two common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are closely linked: one cannot be properly managed without attention to the other. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetic and pre-diabetic states that is abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) and factors associated with it among hypertensive patients in Kiambu Hospital, Kenya. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from February 2014 to April 2014. Hypertensive patients aged ≥18 attending the outpatient medical clinic were included in the study. Pregnant and known diabetic patients were excluded. Data was collected on socio-demographics, behavior, and anthropometrics. Diabetes status was based on a Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1C) classification of ≥6.5% for diabetes, 6.0-6.4% for pre-diabetes and ≤6.0% for normal. AGR was the dependable variable and included two diabetic categories; diabetes and pre-diabetes. Results: We enrolled 334 patients into the study: the mean age was 59 years (Standard deviation= 14.3). Of these patients 254 (76%) were women. Thirty two percent (107/334; 32%) were found to have AGR, with 14% (46) having un-diagnosed DM and 18%(61) with pre-diabetes. Factors associated with AGR were age ≥45 (OR = 3.23; 95% CI 1.37 ≥ 7.62), basal metabolic index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2 (OR= 3.13; 95% CI 1.53 - 6.41), low formal education (primary/none)(OR= 2; 95%CI 1.08 - 3.56) and family history of DM (OR=2.19; 95%CI 1.16 - 4.15). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of undiagnosed AGR among hypertensive patients. This highlights the need to regularly screen for AGR among hypertensive patients as recommended by WHO.

Pan African Medical Journal 2015; 22

Author Biographies

Nkatha Meme
Field Epidemiology Training Program, Ministry of Health, Kenya
Samuel Amwayi
Field Epidemiology Training Program, Ministry of Health, Kenya
Ziporrah Nganga
Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology, Kenya
Esther Buregyeya
Makerere University, College of Health Sciences School of Public Health, Uganda

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1937-8688