Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance indicators in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2008-2014

  • Hugo Kavunga Membo
  • Aaron Mweene
  • Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba
  • Justin Masumu
  • Riziki Yogolelo
  • Norbert Ngendabanyikwa
  • Eddy Sokolua
  • Fred Sagamiko
  • Edgar Simulundu
  • Steve Ahuka
  • Jean Jacques Muyembe

Abstract

Introduction: The last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Africa was reported in July 2014, thus underscoring the tremendous progress towards polio eradication worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the results of a seven-year surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and to identify potential gaps that need to be addressed. Methods: Epidemiological and virological data obtained from AFP surveillance among AFP cases less than 15 years from January 2008 to December 2014 in DRC were retrospectively considered and analyzed in this study. Results: Of the 13,749 AFP cases investigated, 58.9% received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), 7.3% never received OPV, while the status of 18.3% was unknown. Analysis of surveillance performances showed that all, but two, indicators were below the required WHO-specified targets. Non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) isolation rate was consistently below the minimum requirement at ≥10% and the proportions of stool specimens that reached the laboratory within 72 hours of being sent were always below 15% (WHO target is ≥80%). Virus isolation and differentiation showed that 1.5% of AFP cases were infected by WPVs, 5.5% by Sabin strains, 0.5% by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) and 7.2% by NPEVs. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that additional efforts are needed to address the timeliness of adequate stool specimens’ arrival to the laboratory. It remains essential to maintain high polio vaccine coverage and high AFP surveillance standards to ensure rapid detection and containment of either WPV importation or VDPV re-emergence in DRC.

Pan African Medical Journal 2016; 24

Author Biographies

Hugo Kavunga Membo
Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB), P.O Box 1197 Kinshasa 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia
Aaron Mweene
Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia
Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba
Service de Virologie, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun (CPC), rue Henri Dunant P.O Box 1274, Yaoundé, Cameroun
Justin Masumu
Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB), P.O Box 1197 Kinshasa 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Riziki Yogolelo
Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB), P.O Box 1197 Kinshasa 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Norbert Ngendabanyikwa
World Heath Organization (WHO), Central African Inter-country Bureau, Libreville, Gabon
Eddy Sokolua
World Heath Organization (WHO), Central African Inter-country Bureau, Libreville, Gabon
Fred Sagamiko
Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia
Edgar Simulundu
Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia
Steve Ahuka
Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB), P.O Box 1197 Kinshasa 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Jean Jacques Muyembe
Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB), P.O Box 1197 Kinshasa 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Published
2016-09-18
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 1937-8688