Pan African Medical Journal

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Medication adherence and factors associated with poor adherence among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on follow-up at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Gabriel Waari, Joseph Mutai, Joseph Gikunju


Introduction: Medication non-adherence is a common problem facing health care providers treating adult type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Poor glycaemic control associated with increased morbidity and mortality are resulting consequences. The objective of this study was to assess medication adherence among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital from November 2015 to January 2016. 290 Type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Adherence levels were determined by patient scores on Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 and glycaemic control by blood assay for glycosylated haemoglobin. Ordinal logistic regression modelling was done using STATA software to determine factors associated with poor medication adherence Results: The prevalence of medication adherence low for 28.3 % [95% CI: 23.1, 33.5], medium for 26.2% (95% CI: 21.1, 31.3) and high for 45.5% (95% CI: 39.6, 51.3) of study participants. Glycaemic control was good (HbA1c < 7%) for 107 (36.9 %) of study participants. Dissatisfaction with family members support (OR = 2.99, CI = 1.12-7.98), patients with 2-10 years duration of disease (OR = 2.07, CI = 1.01- 4.22), ever being admitted for diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.94, CI = 1.60-5.41), challenge in drug access (OR = 1.76, CI = 1.01-3.05) and dissatisfaction with attending clinicians (OR = 3.58, CI= 1.36 - 9.43) were factors found associated with poor medication adherence. Conclusion: A majority of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have suboptimal medication adherence. Family support, affordability of medications and good healthcare provider-patient communication are important in ensuring medication adherence.

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