Répercussions métaboliques et cardiovasculaires de la substitution glucocorticoïde au cours de la maladie d’Addison
AbstractRecent studies conducted in patients with Addison’s disease (AD) highlighted that this disease, even after treatment, is a significant cause of morbi-mortality. This study aims to determine the cardiovascular and metabolic deleterious impact of long-course glucocorticoid substitution therapy. We conducted a retrospective study of 28 patients with treated Addison’s disease evolving for more than 15 years. The average age of patients was 58, 53 years, with a female predominance (65%). The average follow-up period was 17, 87 years. Initial dose of hydrocortisone was 32, 5 mg/day (20.52 mg/m2) and 27, 9 mg/day (16,41mg/m2) at the time of the study. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with AM was 35.71% after a period of treatment longer than 15 years. At the end of the follow-up period, 28.57% of patients were obese; 25% of patients had developed AH (arterial hypertension) and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of dyslipidemia went from 3.57% to 42.85%. Only one patient had myocardial infarction at 25-year follow-up. Factors favoring the onset of MS in our study were history of disease and weight loss at the moment of diagnosis. Adjustment of substitution therapy is a challenge in patients with Addison’s disease due to morbi-mortality associated with overdose. A regular follow-up and a personalized therapeutic approach are necessary to improve patients’ prognosis.
Keywords: Addison’s disease, hydrocortisone, morbidity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk