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Bacterial meningitis in Niger: an analysis of national surveillance data, 2003-2015

Lawaly Maman Manzo, Sani Ousmane, Dan Dano Ibrahim, Maman Zaneidou, Jean Testa, Halima Boubacar Maïnassara

Abstract


Introduction: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is one of the most severe infectious disease in Niger republic. To best describe the trends of BM disease, meningitis surveillance data from the Centre de Recherche Medicale et Sanitaire (CERMES) and the Direction of Surveillance and Response to Epidemics (DSRE) were reviewed and analyzed.

Methods: Data on number of notified cases of BM and on pathogens were analyzed during 2003-2015. Excel 2013 was used for trend analysis on the etiology of BM prevalence and incidence.

Results: A total of 10051 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected were confirmed by laboratory methods. The main etiologies of meningitis detected were N. meningitidis (82.1%), S. pneumonia (12.1%) and H. influenza (3.4%). N. meningitidis mostly affected children in the age groups of 5-9 years (32.9%) and 10-14 years (24.9%) with respective mean incidence of 14.9 and 11.3. The percentage estimate of N. meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) meningitis fell to 0% in 2015 while during the same year that of N. meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) and N. meningitidis serogroup W (NmW) reached 82.9% and 17% respectively.

Conclusion: Overall, the epidemiological trends of the BM in Niger were dynamic. The emergence of NmC strains suggests that there may be an urgent need for serogroup C containing vaccines in Niger in the coming years.

Keywords: Niger, epidemiology, bacterial meningitis, surveillance



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