Determining the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated nephropathy (HIVAN) using proteinuria and ultrasound findings in a Nigerian paediatric HIV population

  • EE Ikpeme
  • UE Ekrikpo
  • MU Akpan
  • SI Ekaidem
Keywords: HIVAN, microalbuminuria, HIV, HAART, proteinuria, paediatrics, Nigeria


Background: HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common form of chronic kidney disease resulting directly from HIV infection. The true prevalence of HIVAN in the paediatric population of West Africa is unknown, largely due to lack of surveillance and reporting of kidney disease in HIV positive patients.
Methods: This was a prospective study over a six month period( July to December 2008) conducted in the Infectious Disease Unit of the Department of Paediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria involving all confirmed cases of paediatric HIV infection. Urine microalbuminuria using calculated urine albumin – creatinine ratio was determined and repeated in 4 weeks interval. CD4 count and renal ultrasonography was done for all the patients. The correlation of urine albumin – creatinine ratio with CD4 count, duration of treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and association with clinical staging of the disease was also examined.
Results: Fifty – nine (60.2%) were males, thirty – nine (39.8%) were females with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. The prevalence rate of 31.6% HIVAN was found, out of which 3.1% had abnormal ultrasound findings. There was a significant correlation between CD4 count and urine albumin – creatinine ratio (r = -0.22, p=0.03). There was no correlation between urine albumin – creatinine ratio and duration on HAART (r = -0.10, p = 0.31).
Conclusion: Screening for microalbuminuria is essential for the early diagnosis and treatment of HIVAN in this age group.

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